Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>ournal of <strong>U</strong>niversity of <strong>B</strong>abylon for Humanities, (<span style="color: rgb(255, 102, 0);"><strong>JUBH</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p align="justify" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBH</strong> is a Humanities peer-reviewed open access journal monthly publishing high-quality research and review papers at the lead of recent research describing significant developments in Human Sciences.</span></p> <p align="justify" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>ISSN:&nbsp;<a title="ISSN:&nbsp;2617-0906" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2617-0906</a></strong></span></p> University of Babylon en-US Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities 2617-0906 Debates and Debates in Islamic Thought the Debates of Imam Sadiq (Peace be Upon him) Model <p>Is a dialogue between two teams on a subject for each of the parallels point of view contrary to the point of view of his opponent, the goal of showing the truth was not a discussion of a written note taught at the beginning of Islam, where there was no need to study this science for the safety of instinct and the Arabic language then, but the proliferation of Islamic conquests and the spread of Islam overlap With the Arabic language Other languages ​​People needed rules to be bound by the discussion So blogging in this science became one of the most urgent needs and in order to defend religion and Sharia it became necessary to learn the arts of debate and debate was the first to distinguish these rules and make them independent science and classified the corner religion The scholars have proven that the study of this science is obligatory if it was done by some fell from the rest as we discussed in the course of the search for this science and ethics and special rules must be adhered to Almtazran away from the spasm and sectarianism and sectarianism because it is originally a collaboration between the two teams of symmetrical In order to find out the truth, these debates were repeated during the era of the faithful Imam Muhammad al-Baqir and Ja'far al-Sadiq (peace be upon them) despite their deep history, beginning with the era of the Messenger of Allah and the imams after him (peace be upon them) The truthful was the height of preaching During the reign of Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him), where he sat for the public and private, people from all countries came to him asking him about halal and haram and the interpretation of the Qur'aan, so no one came out of them except satisfied. Imam (peace be upon him) faced all the perverse currents and ideologies prevailing in his time Such as heresy, ignorance, isolation, algebra and opinion, and what results from these currents of misinterpretation of the Shariah, so he confronted them and discussed them in a number of ways, so that he deviated from their content in order to preserve the true religion and in order to learn from this great school and as a result of the importance of the science of debate and debate. Paul brothers, dear readers interest.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Fatima Hamza Kadim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-15 2018-11-15 26 8 1 18 The Derivation and Reference of the Word Religion in the Holy Quran <p>The research focuses on the derivative origin of the word "religion" and its uses in the Holy Quran. The research shows that the meaning of this word is organized by a precise intellectual system based on four pillars: God, slave, Sharia, and punishment.</p> <p>In spite of the occasional softening of the word according to the context in which it appears, it does not depart from the general framework set by the linguists in their dictionaries.</p> Hamid Abdalmohsin Khadim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-15 2018-11-15 26 8 19 27 Human coexistence in the light of legal legislation and international conventions Analytical study in sociology of law <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Seen a recent years of the twentieth century remarkable development in different areas the information of the meeting , and other social sciences other in general has had the concept of sociology legal and its topics either great care of scientists many whether in the field of legal or social the fact that both the fields is connected the other closely it is possible that we apply sociology the study of legal system which saves the system in the community as well as the study the man of the law, which is heading face social legislation officer social with a special features in a state or community of a particular seeks more growth and progress to achieve the security and stability in the community and human with nature of the different but differentiated</p> Ahmed Hassan Abdullah Al-Rubaie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-15 2018-11-15 26 8 28 42 The activity of Teaching by using The Triple Distinguished in the collecting of the students of the fourth stage in the Arabic Islamic Civilization History lesson <p>The research importance can be summarized in the following points:</p> <ol> <li>Drawing attention of the students to the activities that are performed by the teacher during the lesson, each of these activities includes (6) students according to their numbers.</li> <li>Ruling out the traditional method that depends on names that normally focuses on poor or distinct specific students.</li> <li>Developing the skill of social coexistence.</li> <li>Developing the skill of thinking when one of the members is being chosen.</li> </ol> <p><strong>The research aim:</strong></p> <p>This research aims at knowing the teaching affect by using the strategy of the triple distinguished in the teaching of the Arabic Islamic civilization lesson for the fourth stage.According to this theory there is no difference between the students who study the subject of modern history by using numbered heads strategy and those who study the same subject by using traditional method at the level of (0, 05)</p> <p><strong>The research results:</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The results of this research showed the superiority of experimental students group on both groups so the zero hypothesis has been rejected while the alternative hypothesis has been accepted.</p> Motamem J. Gnani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-15 2018-11-15 26 8 43 70 The Social and Environmental Representations in the Poetry of Saadi Yousuf <p>The research revealed that the experience of Saadi Yusuf al-Sha'ariyya has carried out important social and environmental representations, expressed by the poet in various pictures. These representations were made by the poet's personal attitudes from his society first, and from his environment, which enjoyed a particular specificity. Secondly, the greatest thought is that these representations contributed in one way or another to crystallization An important part of Saadi Yusuf's experience, which is replete with multiple thematic features, deserves to be part of critical studies that reveal what lies beneath her exalted visions and attitudes.<br> </p> Saad Ali Abed Al-Murshedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-15 2018-11-15 26 8 71 85 The Significance of the Prohibition Atainst the Fundamentals of Imamiyah and its Jurisprudential Applications <p>The language in which the Quran came down is Arabic, and it is necessary to know the words and meanings of this language in order to understand the words of the Shariah and its evidence. This depends on their knowledge of the situation and the unity of the word and meaning and their participation, as well as the meanings of the words on their meanings as a sign of orders and prohibitions. To derive legal rulings from the evidence only by understanding the rules of the language, and the legal provisions that have been shown in the phenomena of the Book and the Sunnah depends on understanding the method of drawing on the commands and prohibitions and indications, because it proves the most provisions and the orbit of the assignment and the distinction between duty And other muslim man's land, and so on, and for that adopted a research study forbidding indication when fundamentalists Imami and applications of jurisprudence, the meaning of the prohibition and the substance and form of which depends upon a sign forbidding both in worship leads to corruption or in the transactions statement does not require it.</p> Ammar Mohammed Hussein Ali Al-Anssari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-15 2018-11-15 26 8 86 98 Critical View of the Approach to the Rules of Conflict in Iraqi Private International Law <p>The rules of conflict in law are general and indirect rules. They don't provide substantive solutions to the dispute before the courts، because their task is to determine the relevant law. These rules seek to find appropriate and fair solutions between the parties. In order to achieve its goal some of them are flexible and others are rigid، not easy to be applicable، such as criteria based on territory of the state، or the principle of state sovereignty. The Iraqi legislator in the Iraqi civil Code 1951 had been adopt the latest theories and principles in the field of conflict of law theory in the field of comparative law.&nbsp; From that time until now، it has not changed، despite the important developments that have occurred internationally since the second half of the last century in the economic، social and political fields as well as at the level of our country Iraq. This paper proposes to reconsider the importance of the conflict of laws rules in Iraqi private international law in accordance to the contemporary in developments and the growth of international private relations. The Iraqi legislature is obliged to respond the new developments and to review some rules of conflict of laws.</p> Khair Al Dine Al Amine ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-15 2018-11-15 26 8 99 115 Algebraic Ability of Teachers of Mathematic for Preparatory School and its Relation to Mathematic Fluency in their Students <p>This research aimed to explore the nature of correlative relation between compulsory ability of mathematics teachers of preparatory schools and mathematics fluency for their students in Babel governorate.</p> <p>In order to achieve the aim of research, it has been applying the following zero hypotheses:</p> <ul> <li class="show">There is no difference with a statistic evidence at evidence level of (0.05) between the real performance average and virtual performance average for the female and male teachers of mathematics in Babel governorate according to the compulsory test prepared for this fore-mentioned purpose.</li> <li class="show">There is no difference with a statistic evidence at evidence level of (0.05) between the real performance average and virtual performance average for the students of 4<sup>th</sup> scientific grade in Babel governorate according to the math. fluency test prepared for this fore-mentioned purpose.</li> <li class="show">There is no difference with a statistic evidence at evidence level of (0.05) between the compulsory ability for teachers of scientific 4<sup>th</sup> grade and the math. fluency of their</li> </ul> <p>The population of research was determined with teachers of math. of preparatory schools in Babel governorate, then specifying female and male teachers of math. of scientific 4<sup>th</sup> grade and their students by arena to proceed the research, so sample of research of female and male teachers was (61) as (25) male teacher and (36) female teacher, while sample of students was (915) student, as (375) boys and ( 540) girls, means choosing (15) male and female students randomly from male students from male teachers and female students from female teachers. In order to collecting data related to the research, it has been building the following tests:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Testing the compulsory ability of teachers: consists of (10) testing items as (7) of article type and (3) of subjective type.</li> <li class="show">Testing the math. fluency of students: consists of (12) testing items as (11) of article type and (1) of subjective type.</li> </ul> <p>Adequate statistical analyses have been proceeded to determine the discrimination, difficulty and easiness for items of the test, and make sure of the psychometric peculiarities for them. After relying upon the statistic tools to analyze results of applying the two tests like (T-test) for a correlated sample as well as the (T-Test) for two independent sample not correlated with each, Pearson correlating coefficient, Alpha Kronpakh equation, T-Equation to measure the correlation evidence, the results showed the following:</p> <ul> <li class="show">Female and male teachers of math. of scientific 4<sup>th</sup> grade in Babel governorate haven’t the compulsory ability if compared with the virtual medium.</li> <li class="show">Students of scientific 4<sup>th</sup> grade in Babel governorate haven’t the math. fluency in mathematics compared with the virtual level.</li> <li class="show">There is a strong positive correlative relation between the compulsory ability of teachers (male and female) and the math. fluency of their students.</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Hussam Ubeid Abdulabbas Abdullah Areej Khidhr Hasan Al-Khafaji ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-15 2018-11-15 26 8 116 135 Legal Regulation of Electronic Insurance ((A comparative study)) <p>Insurance is an effective factor in supporting commercial activities. The latter requires speed and flexibility, which requires providing procedures that are far from the administrative complications thatare an obstacle to the movement of commercial activities. Therefore, most countries are committed to linking the insurance services through the electronic market through Sale and purchase of insurance services through the Internet.</p> <p>This process requires the provision of technical and technical requirements that help to spread the culture of electronic insurance, from the legislative system that supports the conduct of electronic insurance, there must be special provisions governing the provisions of insurance electronically.</p> <p>Whereas the Law of Electronic Signature and Electronic Transactions No. 78 of 2012 has referred to the conduct of contracting operations electronically, which absorbs the legal basis for conducting the insurance process electronically, since the latter is one of the named contracts which can be absorbed by the above law, but noted that the insurance companies in Iraq Insurance is practiced in its traditional form only, which requires the promotion of the culture of electronic insurance in order to serve the economic development process and achieve the effectiveness of commercial activities.</p> Habib Obaid Marza Al Ammari Maher Mohsen Aboud Al-Khikani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-15 2018-11-15 26 8 136 147 Corpus Linguistics and Translation <p>The 21<sup>st</sup>century witnesses tremendous technological and organizational advances in world’s economy and societies. This has left a great impact on translation and translation studies. Corpus is a machine-readable representative collection of naturally occurring language assembled for linguistic analysis accessible with software such as, concordances that can find list and source of linguistic patterns. It lays the foundation of Corpus linguistics which makes it possible for translators and translation studies to make use of large quantity of stored data on computers for examining target language translations. Computer corpora includes spoken/written, casual/formal, fiction/non-fiction texts representing various demographic areas. The study aims at familiarizing student of translation and translators&nbsp; with the methods and practical applications of computer corpora in various fields of language use. The study reveals that Corpus data are essential for accurately describing various samples of language by showing how lexis, grammar and semantics interact to serve appropriate translation output.</p> Riyadh Khalil Ibrahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-15 2018-11-15 26 8 148 159 10.29196/jubh.v26i8.1793 Transformations of Dramatic Character in Michael Roman's Play texts <p><strong><u>&nbsp;</u></strong></p> <p>This research aims to study (the transformations of dramatic character in Michael Roman's play texts). There is no doubt that the concept of transformation is one of the most important concepts that has attracted the attention of critics and researchers since Aristotle to the present time as it has a direct impact upon the dramatic structure and its various elements, especially in the dramatic character, which is the basis of the play text and the holder of its intellectual and artistic signs.</p> <p>Play text is the most capable type of literary texts to embody the structure of transformation, in which the transformation finds a wide space for representation and achievement, and it is shown in the texts of the Egyptian playwright (Michael Roman 1924-1973) which kept pace with great transformations in different aspects of life after the revolution of 1952.</p> <p>Therefore, this research is to study his play texts and reveal the transformations of his dramatic characters at the intellectual, psychological, social, spiritual and material level.</p> <p>The fourth chapter includes the findings reached by the researcher including:</p> <ul> <li>Transformation in the dramatic character that exists in a transformed reality such as the revolution of 1952 has emerged as a natural and inevitable feature.</li> <li>Dramatic characters are characterized as problematic characters that are incompatible with their social environment, and are therefore in dire need for transformation.</li> <li>Roman uses the artistic structure, theatre techniques and dramatic situations in a way that leads to transformation.</li> </ul> <p>In addition, the researcher presented a set of conclusions that emerged from the research. Finally, this chapter is concluded with a set of recommendations suggested by the researcher to be considered in the future. We then mentioned the proposals, followed by a list of references</p> Amer Sabah Almarzook Ail Jawad Abid Al Houssini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-15 2018-11-15 26 8 160 178 The Impact of Educational Techniques in the Achievement of Students in the Fifth Grade Literary Literature and Texts <h2>The present study aimed to identify the effect of the short story in the students of the first three grades of the primary stage on language fluency in the General Directorate of Education in the province of Baghdad / Rusafa III.</h2> <h2>To achieve the research objective, the researcher formulated the following hypothesis: There is no statistically significant difference between the mean of the experimental group and the control group in the post-cognitive testing of the linguistic level at the level of significance (0,05).</h2> <h2>The current study was determined as follows: (2017-2018, primary schools in the Directorate of Education of Rusafa III, grammatical concepts found in the branches of the Arabic language for the first three grades of the primary stage).</h2> <h2>The research community consists of students of the second and third grades of primary school who study Arabic in the primary schools of the Directorate General of Education Baghdad, Al-Rusafa 3, for the academic year 2017-2018, the number of (12003) students distributed to (112) primary schools according to information obtained by the researcher From the Directorate General of Education.</h2> <h2>(B) was chosen to be the experimental group, which taught Arabic grammar in short story mode, and was chosen to be the control group to which the material is taught according to the traditional method. The number of students in the division (43) students, and the number of students in Division (A) (43) students, after the exclusion of students retreating.</h2> <h2>&nbsp;The researcher prepared a test in linguistic fluency, consisting of (40) paragraphs and was verified the validity and the coefficient of difficulty, and the strength of discrimination and stability. The researcher used the following statistical methods in his research procedures and analysis of the results: (T-test of two independent samples, square (Ca2), Pearson correlation coefficient, and Kronbach-alpha equation).</h2> <h2>The researcher studied the two groups of research in the experiment, which lasted a full semester, applied at the end of the study tools, the results showed the following:</h2> <h2>- The students of the experimental group who studied according to the short story style exceeded the pupils of the control group who studied according to the usual method in the grammatical subjects.</h2> <h2>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;In light of the findings of the present study, the researcher concluded a number of conclusions, including:</h2> <h2>The short story style is one of the most effective teaching methods in the teaching of Arabic grammar for students in the first three grades of elementary school. The average students' achievement was higher than that of students who were taught in the traditional way. Students of both sexes achieved almost equal achievement, indicating that the student's sex was not a significant variable in the teaching of language training using educational games.</h2> <h2>2. The short story style leads to a variety of methods of presentation of grammatical subjects, resulting in a marked increase in the motivation of students in language fluency.</h2> <h2>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;In light of this, the researcher made a number of recommendations concerning the study results, including:</h2> <h2>1. Adopting the short story method in teaching the language exercises for students in the fourth grade because of its impact on students' achievement.</h2> Healal Mbder Kazem Ali Hamza Jakhyour FareS Mutashar Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-15 2018-11-15 26 8 179 198 The Effect of the Use of the Strategy of the Debate in the Skill of Evaluating the Arguments of Students in the First Grade Average Schools of Distinguished in Biology <p>The research seeks to identify the Effect of using the debate strategy in the skill of evaluating the arguments among the students of the first grade intermediate schools of distinct students in biology.</p> <p>The research was determined by the students of the first intermediate schools of distinct students of the Middle Euphrates provinces, which included (the center of the province of Qadisiyah , the district of Shamia, Babylon, Najaf, holy Karbala), and their number(377) students, the researcher choose the semi-controlled experimental&nbsp; design, and selected the secondary school for boys in the Directorate of Education of Al- Qadisiyah. The researcher prepare tool for this design, was to test the skill of evaluating the arguments, which consisted of (19) items in its final form distributed over three alternatives. , Where they were verified the validity by the coefficient of difficulty and discrimination, and reliability using Kronbach's Alpha as (0.75).</p> <p>The result were: The students of the experimental group outweigh the students of the control group in the test of the skill of evaluating arguments. In light of the research results, the researcher recommended some recommendations.</p> Ali Raheem Mohammed Zainab Ayad Raheem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-15 2018-11-15 26 8 199 214 Assessment of the Geographical Skills of Primary School Teachers in the Light of Human Development Skills. <p>The human being's communities have changed continuously for all life aspects. Especially after the industry revolution which leads to population density, knowledge, and technology development in the mass media and communications. The huge data processing revolution makes the world just small village after the amazing inventions are able to exchange the knowledge and information among the peoples; the civilization is progressing because of continuous feeding by multi-springs of human's knowledge such as intellectual, cultural, social and economical.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The geography has took part to this development by it has provided the students with knowledge, experience, improvement the skills and using the basic technologies as well as it has took part to build their personalities.</p> <p>The Nations have opened out the development, progressive, and communication with past and benefit of it in the present to bright the future horizons; it always interests in their creative peoples especially the teachers to achieve the social philosophy widely. Because of the educational process can not achieve their strategy aims in all teaching stages only by the teacher is able to know the skills, its good performance, reading many of studies, symposiums and educational conferences which dealt with learning of geography materials and its skills. The results have shown that students at all stages suffered from difficulty in the acquiring of geographical skills; because of weakness of the geography’s material teachers (male and female) of these skills.</p> <p>The researcher has realized that most of geography’s material teachers faced difficulties in the teaching and learning the geography’s skills, he found clear weakness in performance of these skills and their little interest in this vital aspect when they are studying geography, they are ensuring on the theoretical aspect without practical aspect in their teaching. This has side effects on the students; because we can not ask for the students good comprehension for geographical skills at the time when their teachers are unable to study the material and they have not knowledge and application background.</p> <p>Here; the present study’s problem has come; the researcher has felt to need to make a study in title “evaluation of geographical skills for teachers of primary stage and he suggested a program to development it” to treatment a problem has limited by these studies. The problem is weakness ofmaterial’s teachers for geographical skills that leads to this study and needed to it.</p> Sulbi Mklif Hashn ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-15 2018-11-15 26 8 215 240