Journal of University of Babylon for Pure and Applied Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>ournal of <strong>U</strong>niversity of <strong>B</strong>abylon for <strong>P</strong>ure and <strong>A</strong>pplied <strong>S</strong>ciences, (<span style="color: #008000;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong> is a scientific peer-reviewed open access journal monthly publishing high-quality research and review papers at the forefront of modern research describing significant developments in&nbsp;Pure and Applied Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Online ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>2312-8135</strong></span></a></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Print ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>1992-0652</strong></span></a></span></p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Wesam Bhaya) (information) Fri, 19 Oct 2018 20:32:05 +0000 OJS 60 Detection of Staphylococcal Species Diversity within Human Skin Microbiome Using a Simple PCR-SSCP Technique <div style="text-align: justify;"> <p><strong>Objective</strong>. The aim of this study was to detect the diversity of <em>Staphylococcus</em> species of a healthy human skin using a simple techniquevPCR-SSCP.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Blood samples, saliva, and skin swaps samples were collected from 50 persons from Hilla City&nbsp; - Iraq. The genomic DNA was extracted from these samples using the Bacteria Genomic DNA Kit. The concentrations and purity of DNA extract estimated by NanoDrop spectrophotometer. Polymerase chain reaction – single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR–SSCP) technique was performed to detect the diversity between Staphylococcal species in the human skin microbiome using a specific primer of the 16SrRNA gene.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The PCR results, indicated that the Staphylococcal species were found within the ski community, but it's not infected blood and mouth of test healthy individuals. SSCP-heteroduplex patterns of PCR products appeared the presence Staphylococcal species diversity within skin microbiome of test healthy individuals.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In spite of the PCR-SSCP, heteroduplex method was simple and cheap and appeared the diversity betweenvStaphylococcalspeciesvin the human skin microbiome, but it's not diagnosed the bacterial strains. So these results required to confirm by DNAvsequencingvtechnique.</p> </div> Lubab Aqeel, Rabab Omran ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Association of TSHR Gene rs2268458 Polymorphism with Hypothyroidism in Females of Babylon Province-Iraq <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>The Aim:</strong> To evaluate the association of <em>TSHR </em>gene polymorphism rs2268458 with some Physio-biochemical parameters among hypothyroidism women.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methods</strong>: This study included 51 hypothyroidism women and 43 healthy women as a control group. Some Physio-biochemical (body mass index (BMI), cytochrome 450 1A1 (CYP1A1), calcium, and phosphorus) and hormonal assay (Osteopontin (OPN), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), fT3, fT4 and Calcitonin (CT)) assay were performed. Genotyping of rs-2268458 of <em>TSHR </em>gene was carried out using the polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Results: </strong><em>TSHR</em> rs2268458 was associated with hypothyroidism in Iraqi women and allele C can be a risk factor for disease by OR= 4.393, CI=1.42-13.53 where TC and CC genotypes were associated with high BMI, while TC genotype was associated with high calcitonin and CYP1A1 levels.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The <em>TSHR</em> rs2268458 polymorphism was associated with hypothyroidism in Iraqi women and allele C can be a risk factor for some Physio-biochemical and hormonal disorder in hypothyroidism women.</p> Batool Ibrahim Hussain, Maysaa Adil Hadi, Hussein Jasim AL-Harbi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Approximation of Burger's Equation Using Sextic B-Spline Galerkin Scheme with Quintic Weight Function <p>In this study, We produce the new numerical scheme which relies on sextic B-spline Galerkin method takes with quintic B-spline as a weight function, for solving the Burger's equation, contrasted &nbsp;with exact solution can be done and then we find out a linear stability analysis which is erect on a Fourier (Von Neumann) method.</p> Akeel Abdul wahid Qasim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Study of Computer Vision Syndrome and Smart Devices among the Employers and Students in College of College of health and Medical Technique of University of Al -Furat Al-Awsat Techniques. Kufa <p><strong><em>Objectives </em></strong>Survey about numbers of students and employers that they were influenced by recurrent using of computers and smart devices, in addition to that, the comparative study performing by knowing of relationship with different and effect on them.<strong><em> Materials And Methods</em></strong> This study was executed on individuals of students and employees during 1 year only (from January 1<sup>st</sup> 2016 to August 15<sup>th</sup> 2017) in the College of Health and Medical Technology /kufa in the province of Al-Najaf. It is included in the relation between frequent using of computers and smart devices and another risk factor. <strong><em>Results </em></strong>The results shown significant differences in student’s users of computers and smart devices in which there were little numbers of visions influencing among them in different ages and genders. Utilizing for long periods during days in different purposes yet didn't have a greater effect on users in case of computer vision syndrome according to the employer’s users. Since the preparation of students was having medical glass in male and female and the letter has rated more than the male. In another hand the ages at about <strong>(24-32)</strong> the using of computers and smart devices was, and the more risk factors among all of them had had greater rates of correlation with the glass wearing in a group of students that they have eye allergy in comparison with the time user. Also these results were shown the superiority of male in comparison with female in using these devices So, from the results mentioned above the convergence in numbers of students that they have vision affects due to employment of these devices in such of ages about <strong>[(19-23), (24-32)] </strong>in male and female, but the first ages have slightly higher rates than other<strong>)]</strong> by percentage <strong>(50%)</strong> of the students that suffer from computer vision syndrome from all proportion, whereas 2<sup>nd</sup> group of another age has low significant differences in comparison with previous by the percentage closely <strong>(36.36%)</strong>. The employer’s users of computer and smart devices have significant differences <strong>(p<u>&lt;</u> 0.05)</strong> from the previous results, where it was noticed large numbers of users suffer from problems in their vision due to profuse utilization for long periods of this advice. At the ages <strong>(31-40)</strong> using for different purposes whether (science, entertaining or both of them) has close correlation with hitting of employers by vision syndrome<strong>, </strong>where this factor has significant differences in comparison with other risks <strong>(p<u>&lt;</u>0.05),</strong> while utilizing of these devices under different lights numbers appeared to affect lower than it , also these results were shown no significant differences with regard to employer’s users that they were utilized optical glass after they had using these devices, also effect of this factor ( light numbers) on the putting of eyeglass and presence of significant</p> <p>differences <strong>(p<u>&lt;</u>0.05) </strong>in comparison with the individuals of users that laying screen protection . We found significant differences <strong>(p<u>&lt;</u> 0.05)</strong> in numbers of employers were wearing eyeglass after utilizing these appliances and these demonstrate the vulnerability of devices users and the percentage was <strong>(58.14%)</strong>. <strong><em>Conclusions </em>: </strong>Using &nbsp;computers and smart devices of students more than employers. Appearing different ienfluencing of eye glass wearing of students and employers that utilizing different computers and smart devices with some of risk factors according to others. It is Found assuring correlations among different risk factors , but shown in employers greater than students.</p> Shukria shadhan chyad, Atheer Hussein zyara, Saad Saleem Raheem, Ahmed Takleef Al-Hasani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Spraying Salicylic Acid and Potassium on Sweet Pepper Growth under Water Stress <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This experiment was conducted during the spring growing season 2017 in private farm of Babylon to study the impact of spraying salicylic acid , potassium under water stress and their interaction in sweet pepper growth under water stress. Plants were sprayed three times in 20 days intervals with three levels of Salicylic acid(SA) (0 ,50 and 100 mg. L<sup>-1</sup>) , three levels potassium with ( 0, 1000 and 2000 mg. L<sup>-1</sup>) and three irrigation times (5 ,10 ,15 )days. Complete Randomized Design (C.R.D ) with three replicates. Means were compared by L.S.D.<sub>O.O5 </sub>. Plant high, leaves the number, living area, Auxin(IAA) and potassium content increased with the increase in SA, K concentrations, D<sub>1</sub> and interaction between them. D<sub>3</sub> significantly decreased vegetative growth and IAA, but increased proline, catalase, SOD and ABA. Also, most of the characters were significantly influenced by an interaction between D<sub>3</sub>, SA and K concentrations.</p> Ibrahim Mordhi Radhi, Haider Talib ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Effect Times Number of Spray and Concentration of Foliar Fertilizer (PIO20) in Growth and Yield of Cucumber Variety Jamila Planted in Plastic Houses Conditions <p>The experiment was conducted during a season of 2016 in plastic houses at Azawia- Babylon to study effect times number of spray (two times، &nbsp;three times ) with four levels of spray by foliar nutrition&nbsp; PIO20 (0 ،1.5 ، 2 ،2.5 ml. liter<sup>-1</sup>) in cucumber plant c.v. jamila. The experiment was conducted of factorial in design using (C.R.D) with three replicates. Results showed the treatment spray of three times significantly on the treatment spray two times when imported &nbsp;plant length rate (291.4) cm ,the number of leaves (36.63) leaf and dry weight of the shoot (25.76) gm , fruit long (17.98) cm , fruit weight (109.27) gm and the number of fruits (11.80) fruit.plant<sup>-1</sup> and the one plant yield (1.294)kg. the results also showed all the treatment of spray significantly in vegetative growth and fruiting characteristics as compared with control treatment. the results of the interaction the significant superiority of the treatment spray of three times on the level 2 ml. liter<sup>-1</sup> plant length rate (311.3) cm ,the number of leaves (40.71) leaf and dry weight of the shoot (32.09) gm , fruit long (19.34) cm , fruit weight (116.06) gm and the number of fruits (12.97) fruit.plant<sup>-1</sup> and the one plant yield (1.506)kg.</p> Heba A. Hussein, Hakeem Sh. Atallah, Shawqi N. Yousif ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Some Geometric Properties Of Multivalent Convex Function For Operator On Hilbert Space <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; By making use of the operator on Hilbert space, we introduce and study some properties of geometric of a subclass of multivalent convex functions with negative coefficients.</p> <p>Also, we obtain some geometric properties, such as coefficient inequality, growth and distortion theorem, extreme points, convex set, closure theorem, radius of close-to-convexity, weighted mean and inclusive properties.</p> Mohammed Hadi Lafta, Mazin Hashim Suhhiem ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Caroob Fruits Ceratonia siliquaon The Physiological and Histological Characteristic of Ovaries of Swiss Rat Ratus ratis <p>This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of&nbsp; alcoholic extract of <strong>caroob&nbsp; Fruits <em>Ceratonia siliqua</em></strong> on the histological features of female Swiss rat ovaries. The results were showed that high concentration( 300 mg/kg) of alcoholic extract improved the characteristics of ovaries by increasing volumes and numbers of growing follicles primordial, primary and secondary follicles. In addition, there were increasing in numbers and volumes of corpus luteum and there were increasing in ovaries weights. Other experimental animals group were treated by the lower concentration of <strong>caroob&nbsp; Fruits <em>Ceratoniasiliqua</em></strong>(100 mg/kg) and microscopically section showed that the ovary cortex contained fewer numbers of growing follicles and corpus luteum.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Zainab jawad albu said, Aseel kamel abdalhussein, Zeinab yassein abd Aun ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Different Levels of Rosemary Leafs Powder Supplementation on Some Productive Traits of Broiler Chicken Ross Strain <p>The research was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of rosemary powder supplementation&nbsp; on some productive traits of broiler chicken ross strain. Three hundred unsexed broiler chicks of one-day-old were equally divided into five groups, 2 replicates per group (30 chicks per replicate). Chicks were fed on starter diet from one-day-old until end of three weeks then replaced to finisher diet from the beginning of four weeks until the end of six weeks, starter and finisher diet supplemented with four ratios from rosemary powder 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% which represented experimental groups.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Results showed a significant superiority (P≤0.05) in average live body weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage in birds supplemented with rosemary powder as compared with control group at 3 and 6 weeks of birds age. Moreover, supplementation of rosemary had significantly (P≤0.05) decreased mortality ratio in experimental groups as compared with the control group.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; It can be concluded that supplementation of rosemary powder to the diet had a profound effect to enhance productive traits of broiler chicken ross strain.</p> Mohammed Jard Kadhim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Nickel Concentration in the Breast Milk of Lactating Mothers Living In Hilla City, Babylon, Iraq <p><strong>Background</strong></p> <p>Human milk is the only source of food for infants during the first four to five months of their life. Some chemicals compood can be transferred from the body stores and from blood into the breast milk of a lactating mother.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; To determining and measurements of Nickel leval the human milk and to identify the associations of certain potential variables with the concentrations of these heavy metals.</p> <p><strong>Subjects and Methods</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This is a cross-sectional study carried included a milk test by a randomly selected (68) women apparently healthy lactating women, who attended Babylon&nbsp; Maternity &amp; children hospital in Al – Hilla city during the period mid of February through the end of April 2012. Breast milk was collected and analyzed to detect and measure Nickel using atomic absorption. A questionnaire paper was prepared to recorded the demographic variables. Weights and heights were measured to calculate the Body Mass Index.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study revealed that the mean concentrations of Nickel in the human milk was (23.83±15.57 ppb) which was remarkably high as compared with the concentrations reported by other studies done in other countries. The study shows that there was a statistically significant association (p&lt;0.0s) between&nbsp; the high concentrations of&nbsp; Nickel and the followings associates ; living in urban regions ,living near highways , living near industrial regions and drinking river or tap water, being younger (&lt;3oyears of&nbsp; age) or heaver increase weight and being cigarettes smokers. The prevalence rates of lactating mothers with abnormal concentrations of was 99%and 93% respectively indicating the serious environmental pollution in Hilla city.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Breast milk of lactating mothers in Hilla city is abnormally contaminated with; Nickel this public health problem need to be addressed.</p> Ishtar Munim Nassir, Abaas Noor Al-Sharify, Hasan Alwan Baiee ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Natural Radioactivity Levels in Some Milk Samples available in Local Markets in Babylon Governorate <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The Uranium (<sup>238</sup>U), Thorium (<sup>232</sup>Th) and Potassium (<sup>40</sup>K) activity of specific in (Bq/kg) are measured (10) differentness types of milk which are available in market-place of Iraqi. Aspectrometry gamma ray of methodic with a NaI(Tl) detector its using for radiometric measurements. Also calculates the hazard of radiation indicates (radium equivalent activity and internally hazardous index tab) and effectiveness of Ingestion dose every sampler.</p> <p>The activity of specifics in a sampler of milk was varied between from (0.274±0.158) Bq/kg to (7.851±0.877) Bq/kg, for<sup> 238</sup>U, For<sup> 232</sup>Th between from (0.821±0.273) Bq/kg in (3.067±0.569) Bq/kg and for <sup>40</sup>K between (266.558±5.018) Bq/kg to (485.740±7.197) Bq/kg. In addition to, it is found that radium equivalent activity and internally hazard indexing to the sampler of milk ranged between (27.341) Bq/kg to (48.035) Bq/kg and from (0.07867) to (0.14720) respectively. So, the range summations ingestive effectiveness dose was variedly between (4.861×10<sup>-5</sup>) Sv/y to (1.541× 10<sup>-4</sup>) Sv/y. This search proves that the radioactivity of natural, hazard of radiation references and dose of effective ingestion was lower than the safekeeping, except some value of potassium.</p> Saba Abdulzahra Obaid ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Isolation and Identification of Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus and Detection their Ability to the Production of Virulence Factors <p><strong>*&nbsp;</strong><strong>Objectives</strong><strong>:</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Isolation and Identification of <em>S.aureus</em> and study their susceptibility to the production of virulence factors.</p> <p><strong>*&nbsp;</strong><strong>Methods</strong><strong>: </strong>A total of 50 clinical specimens of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> isolates were collected in AL- Najaf AL-Asharaf governorate during the period of (10/10/2013-20/1/2014) by the cultural characteristic colonies, microscopic for cells, biochemical tests, antibiotics susceptibility test to <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> using an antibiotic diffusion disc assay<strong>, </strong>in addition to studying the virulence factors produced from <em>S.aureus</em> .</p> <p><strong>*</strong><strong> Results:</strong> The results show that the <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> resistant to methicillin formed 70% and 30% of isolates were sensitive to the same antibiotics. Tested 10&nbsp; isolates to methicillin-resistant for their efficiency in forming the highest inhibitory areas for testing their sensitivity to other antibiotics used, the results show <em>S.aureus</em> resistant to penicillin about 100%, while there is no resistance to CO-Trimethoprim because it was sensitive completely 100%.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The susceptibility investigated of <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> resistance methicillin isolates to the production of biofilm and slime layer with using both tube method and growth on Congo red agar respectively. Ten isolates of <em>S.aureus</em>&nbsp; were tested based on resistance to methicillin and their high susceptibility to the production of the biofilm and the slime layer.</p> <p><strong>*</strong><strong> Conclusion</strong><strong>: </strong>So we conclude, they have <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> is highly resistant to β- Lactam antibiotics and the CO-trimethoprim is the most effective in the inhibiting growth of this bacteria. In addition to its ability to produce virulence factors. The increase cause bacterial resistance to our local isolates may be due to the frequent use of antibiotics, which allowed for increased bacterial resistance to various antibiotics.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Angham Najah Al-Khafaji ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Image in Image Steganography based on modified Advanced Encryption Standard and Lest Significant Bit Algorithms <p>Because the big grown of the digital market and the growing demand for protection to data and information which transmitted through the Internet. Steganography is the art of embedding, hiding information into different digital media, it was the main reason to increase its importance in the exponential development of the secret communication of computer and digital cloud users over the internet. There are a lot of techniques and different ways to achieve hiding data. Usually, the data embedding is obtained in communication such as image, text, voice or any multimedia content for copyright and also in military communication for authentication and many other different purposes. In this paper, we protected the information in two ways: Encryption and Steganography. The basic idea is to present a method that encrypted the message firstly by using The AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) it is a symmetric-key encryption each of these ciphers it has 128-bit the size to block, and size keys of 128, 192 and 256 bits.&nbsp; Secondly, hide that encrypted message in color cover image in the Least Significant Bit (LSB) to image’s frame with (.bmp, .jpg) extensions. Our scheme is to enhance the ability of LSB algorithm to include the storage of information and images encoded and intangible sense of human vision. That two methods to increased together the security attend any attack.</p> Aymen Mudheher Badr, Mohamed layth talal, Ghassan Sabeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Dynamic Weights Equations for Converting Grayscale Image to RGB Image <p>The method of converting color images from the RGB color system to grayscale images is a simple operation by using the fixed weights method of conversion, but using the same weights to restore the color of the same images is not an effective operation of all types of images because the grayscale image contains little information and it isn't worthy of conversion operation.</p> <p>The basic idea in this paper is to employ the mathematics equations which extracted from the grayscale image in conversion operation, this paper presents the method of coloring the grayscale image by using the weights derived from the characteristics of the grayscale image. Skewness, Mean and Standard deviation moments have been extracted from the features of grayscale images and its adoption the determine weights of the RGB color system. This method proved its success in coloring images compared to the traditional method adoption of fixed weights for coloring images because it relies on fixed weights for converting all grayscale images.</p> Shymaa Akram Hantoush Alrubaie, Ahmed Hasan Hameed ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 An Energy Efficient Data Collection Using Multiple UAVs in Wireless Sensor Network: A Survey Study <p>Today, with scientific and technological advances in robotics, artificial intelligence, control and computers, land, air, and sea vehicles, they have been considered. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have also significantly improved and are very useful for many important applications in the business, urban and military environment. One of the important uses of UAVs in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is that devices with low energy and may not be able to communicate in large areas. Nevertheless, a UAV can provide a tool for collecting the data of WSN from one device and transmitting it to another device. This article focuses on the field of research on practical applications of UAVs as mobile collectors for wireless sensor networks. First, the investigations of the proposed UAV were studied and compared their weaknesses with each other. Then, the technical challenges of the applications of UAVs in the wireless sensor network were explored.</p> Alaa Taima Albu Salih, Sayeed Amen Hosseini Seno ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Use Google Sketch up As an Illustration in Industrial Drawing <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>When it comes to drawing 3D shapes, we do not get any easier than the Google Sketch Up program. The most important part of 3D drawing, especially in the field of architecture, is the ease of using the program, the ability to turn the idea into virtual reality, the Google sketch program Up, provides a user-friendly service that is not required for a powerful computer, and we all know that AutoCAD is one of the most powerful 3D drawing programs (if not the most powerful) but the difficulty of using it and the time it takes to learn has led most engineers to resort to the easiest program. indispensable but Google sketch programs gave up solutions faster and many choices in final directing. The study examined the problem of the use of the AutoCAD program and the suffering of the drawing teachers in understanding and using it. In contrast, it showed the advantages of the program, and compared it to the AutoCAD program, and presented a questionnaire by the researcher on a sample of the teachers of the engineering drawing in the degrading schools. program AutoCAD, and therefore, this program does not result in the expected purpose of it, so it became necessary to find an alternative at least to use it as a display of sculptures by engineering drawing teacher, and this alternative is a program Cockle&nbsp; Google sketch up.</p> Assad Khudair Daraj, Ahmed Hameed Shakir ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Latent Tuberculin Test after 1-year Therapy with Anti-TNF in Babylon, Iraq <p><strong>Background: </strong>Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients receiving receive anti-TNF agents are at increased risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). The tuberculin skin test (TST)&nbsp;is widely used to screen LTBI and providing preventive treatment, in an effort to meet the WHO target of a 90% reduction in TB by 2035.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To determine the proportion of TST conversion among RA patients after 1&nbsp;year of anti-TNF treatment and association of positive TST result with patients’ socio-demographic characteristics and medical history.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Rheumatology of Marjan Teaching Hospital in Iraq, for a period of 1 year. Patients with RA/and spondyloarthropathy, and who received anti-TNF therapy for &gt;1 year, underwent TST. Their demographic data and medical history were also obtained. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (Version 20) and, p &lt; 0.05 was considered as a sign. Data from the baseline and 1&nbsp;year follow-up was subjected to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to determine whether they were normally distributed. Chi-Square test used to test significance of TST among etanrecept and infliximab at the end of the study.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 96 patients were enrolled, including 55 (57.3%) males and 41 (42.3%) females with an average age of 41.1, and mostly 68 (70.8%) from Babylon Governorate of Iraq. A total of 40 (41.7%) patients had rheumatoid arthritis alone, and the remaining 56 (58.3%) had a comorbidity of spondyloarthropathy. Majority of the patients 65 (67.7%) received the biological agent infliximab, while 31 (32.3%) patients received Etanercept for RA for a period of 1 year. There was a statistically significant decreasing in the median ESR and disease activity &nbsp;from the baseline to the end of the study (p-value &lt;0.01). There was no significant difference in TST results based on gender or age. Both infliximab and etanercept were significantly associated with a decreasing &nbsp;in ESR and disease activity</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study has shown that there was very low TST conversion among RA patients after 1&nbsp;year of anti-TNF treatment and, age and gender were not associated with TST.</p> Ali Alkazzaz, Murtadha Najah Jawad, Zeyad Tareq Kareem ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Neutronic and Temperature Distribution During Enrichment Reduction for BN-350 Reactor <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; This paper represents the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic calculations for the conversion of BN-350 from 27% to 7% enriched Uranium fuel elements. Mixed enrichment cores have been studied where low enrichment uranium (LEU) cores fresh fuel elements substitute gradually the high enrichment uranium (HEU) depleted fuel elements in the equilibrium core.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; Thermal-hydraulic calculations have been carried out to determine changes in the characteristics of the converted reactor during steady-state conditions and transient response to a coolant flow loss.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><u>&nbsp;</u></strong></p> Jamal Mohammed Rashid Abda ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Subclinical Hypothyroidism Prevalence in Pregnant Ladies in AL-Hilla city in Iraq <p>Recent guidelines adapted unique pregnancy thyroid function screening tests because pregnancy subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with different adverse outcomes.&nbsp; There are no data from Iraq about the prevalence of thyroid hypofunction in the 1<sup>st</sup> trimester of pregnancy. This study aims to find the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in the 1<sup>st</sup> trimester.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Patients and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was measured in 100 pregnant women from&nbsp; May 2017-December 2017 in Babylon teaching hospital for maternity and pediatric and in private clinic. If TSH was more than 2.5 mIU/L in the first trimester, free T4 was measured to diagnose then differentiate between subclinical &amp; overt hypothyroidism. If free T4 was in the normal value (0.7-1.8 ng/dl) the diagnosis was subclinical hypothyroidism and if below the normal value, overt hypothyroidism was diagnosed.</p> Ban Amer Mousa, Sijal Fadhil Farhood Al Joborae ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Absorption Spectra, Fluorescence and Energy Levels of Fluorescein Dye <p>The absorption and fluorine spectra of dissolved fluorescein solution in ethanol and different concentrations were studied. The optical properties(absorbance, permeability, linear absorption, and refractive index, as well as time and fluoridation)were calculated. The results showed that a decrease in concentration leads to a decrease in absorption values and an increase in permeability values. This results in a decrease in the values of the absorption coefficient and refractive index. This is in accordance with Lambert's law. Also, the values of the fluorine are lower. The top of the emission spectrum is transferred to the longer wavelengths. The temporal age of fluoride decreases and the quantitative output increases, thus using this dye as an effective laser medium in liquid state lasers. The infrared spectroscopy of the dye was also studied using the (Gaussian 9) program.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Afrah M. AL Hussainey, Salar Hussein Ibrahem, Talib M. Abbas ALShafie ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Study the Effect of Palm Date Extract against Bacterial and Fungal Species Isolated from Ear Infection <p>A number of bacterial and fungal strains associated with external ear infections from the Samarra General Hospital were isolated and included bacterial species <em>(Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Streptococcus pneumonia</em>, <em>Klebsiella spp</em>, <em>Staphylococcus</em> <em>aureus</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>) and fungal species.&nbsp;&nbsp;(<em>Aspergillus flavus,</em> <em>Aspergillus niger</em>, <em>Pencillium spp</em>, <em>Cladosporium</em>) The genus <em>Phoenix doctitera</em> is an important and rich variety of nutrients. It has been tested as a subject for study. Its biological effect on pollen was tested against bacterial and fungal species using ethanol and distilled distilled water. The results showed an inhibitory effect against some of the above-mentioned species with the highest inhibitory against <em>Staphyiococcus .aureus</em> 0.25 ± 2.23 mm and the highest inhibition of <em>Cladosporium</em> 0.2 ± 2.0 mm. Bacteria resistance <em>E.coli, Klebsiella</em> and A. fungus <em>A. flavus , A. niger</em> for the extract of alcohol as the water extract did not have any effect against bacterial and fungal species.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Afrah Abdullah Jasim, Rasha A bdui Atheem Yaseen, Amidah Ali Atiyah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation the Pollution of Sediments of the Shatt Al - Hillah with Heavy Metals by Using the Pollution Indices <p>&nbsp;The level of pollutant of heavy metals (Hg, Co, &nbsp;Pb V, Cr, Ni, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cu, Rb, &nbsp;Zn, As,Th, U) , in the sediment samples on the banks of the Shatt al-Hillah River The study was conducted in the Department of Earth Science at the College&nbsp; of Science, University of Babylon, 14 samples of sediments &nbsp;ware collected from the banks of the river of Shatt Al-Hillah. The average concentration of the heavy metal in the sediment of the river bank in descending order: Sr (360.6 ppm) ,Cr (285.9 ppm), Ni (203.2 ppm), Co (169.9 ppm), Zr (166.3 ppm),. V (116.4ppm) , Zn (91.6 ppm), Cu (48.8 ppm), Rb (41.9 ppm), Pb (18.1 ppm),As(11.1 ppm), Hg(5.7ppm),Th (4.2 ppm),Mo(3.7 ppm), U(2ppm,. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo) for Hg of five sampling station along the river was greater than 3.0, which indicate contamination of sedimentation with a high degree of pollution. The Igeo for Ni in11 sampling station and CO in 12 sites were greater than 1.0, indicated the moderatly level of polluted sediment. The value of the pollution load index (PLI) for the total sampling stations ranged from 0.7 -1.4.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jwad k. Manii ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Jop Burnout and Its Relationship to the Cohesion of the Working Groups, Apractical Study in a Laboratory of the Diwaniya Tires <p>The curriculum was adopted and applied research using behavioral entrance through research variables, such as Jop burnout independent variable psychological dimensions (exhaustion, Lack of Humanity and personal achievement) and changing of the coherence of the workgroup (membership of the group, the dimensions and impact, positive Team Spirit) was linked to a major assumption that there is a statistically significant correlation between the independent variable combustion career, they have been rightly. Adoption of the questionnaire to collect data from the respondents through a form of (18) words by (9) The Words Each variable and three words each. Distributed to a sample of (40) a factor in a laboratory of the Diwaniya Tires laboratory through the heads of departments and directors of divisions and the adoption of the (37) valid form of analysis through the use of ready-made statistical package (SPSS) through the following tools: (the median, standard deviation, correlation coefficient Pearson) . The most prominent conclusion reached by research (employees feel psychological exhaustion which leads to an attempt Drop out of work or the duties assigned to them because of the high rate of Jop Burnout), while the most important recommendation is to research periodically these variables to their impact on the performance of the personnel working in the laboratory of the queried).</p> Mustafa Sabah Hlehel, Ali Abdul Amir ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Measuring the Level of Radiation in some Dry Food Imported in the Markets of AL-Kifil - City and Estimating Excess of Cancer Risk Factor in this Town <p>The radioactive contamination is one of the main causes of cancers. Since the Dry food imported with the different global products is uncensored and is increasing, it is necessary to carry out periodic radiological surveys of all types in our local markets ,the aim of this project is to highlight of radiation level of same food with a statistical procedure for patients with cancer in the AL-Kifil region, there for the activity concentrations of <sup>40</sup>K, <sup>226</sup>Ra and <sup>232</sup>Th radionuclide's calculated in 20 types of Dry food samples were taking from markets in (AL-Kifil City) by using γ-ray spectrometry with NaI(Tl) detector. The mean activity concentrations of <sup>226</sup>Ra is (25.3<strong><u>+</u></strong>9.3) Bq/kg, <sup>232</sup>Th(28.4<strong><u>+</u></strong>7.6)Bq/kg, and <sup>40</sup>K (501.2<u>+</u>158.4) Bq/kg the activity concentration of <sup>40</sup>K higher than the international recommended values (412) Bq/kg the reason is due to the nature of the terrain enjoyed by the industrialized countries for this type of food, which reflected negatively on the number of cancer patients in the digestive system of the population of the city of Kifil, the highest compared to other areas of the province of Babylon, an average of 33 cases.</p> Nihad A. Saleh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Morphotectonic Analysis of Euphrates River Basin/ Iraq <p>Morphological and morphotectonic analysis have been used to obtain information that influences basis. The study area includes the Euphrates river basin in Iraq. Tectonically this area within a Stable shelf, The Stable Shelf which covers the vast majority of the focal south and west of Iraq reaches out into Syria and Jordan and Southwards into Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. It is separated in Iraq into three considerable structural zones. Discrimination of morphotectonic indices of Euphrates basin by using sevenindices. The Euphrates basin (main basin) was divided into four sub-basin (s.b) Wadi Horan, Wadi Ubaiyidh, Shuab Hwaimy, and Shuab Qusair. Which has been completed for each drainage basin utilizing remote sensing and GIS techniques? So as to identify the tectonic activity, different indices including Drainage density (D), Sinuosity index (S), Hypsometric integral (HI), Drainage basin asymmetry (AF), Basin Shape (BS), Transverse Topographic Symmetry (T) and Active tectonic index (Iat). The study demonstrates that the intensity of tectonic activities in different parts of the basin and sub-basins are different. The values of Drainage density (D) main basin and sub-basins are in high classes which mean that the study area has resultant of slight or impermeable subsurface material, little vegetation as well as a good discharge for water and sediments. The Sinuosity index (S) of all study area are sinuous and its semi-equilibrium. Hypsometric integral (HI) of Horan, Ubaiyidh and shuab Hwaimy sub-basins shows high values of HI which means high rates of geological erosion while the shuab Qusair and main basin shows moderate of erosion rates, HI high values shows that study area is tectonically uplifted. According to the calculation of Drainage basin asymmetry (AF) the study area reflects inactive tectonic activity. The Basin Shape (BS) all of the basins are in third class and it reflects inactive tectonic activity. After computing Transverse Topographic Symmetry (T) index in the area of investigate, the outcome demonstrate that all the subbasins lie in low active tectonics except wadi Horan and the main basin was moderate active tectonics. Based on an Active tectonic index (Iat) all the basins were moderate active tectonics except Horan subbasin is active tectonically. These basins have evolved as a result of plate movements, subsidence, uplift and various erosional processes. The study shows the variable relationship between faulting and valleys but most of the trends of faults are subparallel to the Euphrates River. Faults orientations in the study area are parallel to NE-SW direction and NW-SE direction. And also the type of drainage network in the study area which is varied from dendritic to parallel with SW-NE trending and its indicate that study area may be structurally controlled.</p> Zeyad Jameel Al- Saedi, Mustafa Rashead Al-Obaidi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 An Ecological Survey of Benthic Invertebrates in Three Sites in Shatt-Al-Kufa at Al-Najaf Province, Iraq <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The present study was conducted to determine the structure of benthic invertebrates community, as well as a study of some factors associated with water quality in Shatt Al-Kufa. The study was included a choice of three sites located along the Shatt Al-Kufa River, water samples and benthic invertebrates were collected during the period from February 2014 to January 2015.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The abiotic study included measurements of chlorophyll a, salinity, total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand, total hardness, nitrate, and sulfate. The biotic study included the determination the composition of the benthic invertebrates community through the study of the mean population density, the relative abundance index of these organisms and the Jaccard Coefficient was calculated to identify the value of similarity between the studied sites. In the present study, 28 taxa of benthic invertebrates were recorded belong to 4 main groups which are: 8 taxa belonged to Annelida, 7 belonged to Insecta, 10 belonged to Mollusca, 3 belonged to Nematoda. Annelida recorded the highest percentage 40.8% of the total number of benthic invertebrates, Insecta with 30.3%, Mollusca and Nematoda with 28.4 %, 0.5% respectively. Benthic invertebrate has shown positive and negative relationships with the studied physical and chemical characteristics.</p> Feryal A. M. Al-Ameen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Visible Region Response of Cobalt Doped TiO2 via Sol Gel Technique <p>TiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles were prepared via sol-gel technique and then doped with cobalt ions to form TiO<sub>2</sub> doped cobalt sol. Thin films were prepared from this sol using dip coating method and underwent calcination at a temperature of 550 C.The films were characterized by UV–Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The UV–Vis. Absorption spectra show a redshift, which indicates that TiO<sub>2</sub> doped cobalt will respond to the visible region of the spectrum rather than UV- region for pure TiO<sub>2</sub>.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> AbdulKareem AbdulHusssein Kareem Al-Khafajia, AbdulNaser Hasan Al-Zurfy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Plant Density on Growth and Yield of Inbred Lines and Hybrids of Corn (Zea mays L.) <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; A Filed experiment was carried out at the center of the guiding and training agriculture AL-Mahnawia – Babylon during spring season 2015 and autumn season at the same year&nbsp; growing&nbsp; six lines (OH40،ZP707،ZP670،IK8،R153 and Dk(to study and evaluation these lines and its hybrids at autumn season 2015 for traits : leaf area ,number of ears ,number of grain .ears<sup>-1</sup> , grain yield ,total grain yield, by plating&nbsp; at (20,25,30)cm .by using RCBD design for three replicates.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The results showed that significant difference among the genotypes, plant density and the interaction among them. The fifth inbred was superior for all study traits leaf area, number of ears, number of grains.ear<sup>-1</sup> , grain yield, total grain yield it gives&nbsp; 3466 cm2, 1.10 ear.plant-1. 393.36 grans .ear<sup>-1</sup> ,125.45 . gr, plant <sup>-1</sup> ,10.6ton.ha<sup>-1</sup> at 25 cm it was superior on all the study inbreds by giving a high value of these traits .on another hand the hybrid (R153× IK8 )gave a high range of all study traits 5439 cm<sup>2</sup>,1.25 aer.plant<sup>-1</sup>.635.30 gr. Plant<sup>-1</sup> 10.6 ton. ha<sup>-1</sup>. The line R153 and the hybrid( R153× IK8 (gave the best interaction.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Abd – AlKream Hussain Al-Romi, Abduallh Fadhal Sarheed, Rasha Adel Abd Al-Nabi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Nandralone Decanoate on Athletes Fertility <p>Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS)”, (Nandrolone Decanoate) the treatments most widely abused commonly for improving athletic ability, appearance or muscle mass, athletes, coaches, and physicians should be aware of their harmful side effects&nbsp;.liquorice extract consider important medical plant due to &nbsp;rich in antioxidants,&nbsp;flavonoids, phenolic and alkaloids&nbsp;that Supports the general&nbsp; health of the body. In this study we compare between two groups of young athletes from Al-Qassam city, each group contains from six athletes, the first group they taken Nandrolone Decanoate with dose 50 mg, I.M.&nbsp; for three-time weakly and persistence in a period&nbsp; at least two months, the second group the without any treatment are using as a control group. The result showing that athletes who taken Nandrolone at least two months there have low elevation in liver enzyme but there are no significant differences in GPT ,GOT, ALP, as well as decreased the levels of mean “serum FSH, LH, and testosterone.</p> Isam Mohammed Jaber Zabiba, Amer J. Hadi, Aqeel khaleel Ibraheem ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0000