Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong><span style="color: #2969b0; font-family: Georgia, serif;">J</span></strong><span style="font-family: Georgia,serif;">ournal of&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">U</span></strong>niversity of&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">B</span></strong>abylon for&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">E</span></strong>ngineering&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">S</span></strong>ciences&nbsp;<strong>(<span style="color: #2969b0;">JUBES</span>)</strong> is a peer-reviewed open access journal, monthly publishing high-quality research and review papers covering all aspects of recent advances in engineering dealing with:&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Electrical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Mechanical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Material Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Civil Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Chemical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Architectural Engineering</span></li> </ul> <p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">&nbsp;ISSN:&nbsp;<strong>‎<a href="https://extranet.issn.org/resource/issn/2616-9916#" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2616-9916</a></strong></span></p> University of Babylon en-US Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 2616-9916 Design and Performance Investigation of a Hydraulic Mini Turbine Based on Renewable Energy Production System https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2490 <p>Nowadays great interest of renewable energy production systems since last few years. The renewable energy sources such as a hydro, solar and wind have been rapidly growing, especially the hydropower energy due to the increasing of predicted scarcity of fossil fuels and the environmental issues. Kaplan turbine is a reaction type of hydropower which is one of the primary sources of renewable energy. In this study, the aim of this work is to design and performance investigation of a Kaplan turbine runner for determining the power output and efficiency based on different configurations of turbine wheel. The main characteristics of a micro Kaplan turbine primary proposed design configurations was performed to increase the use of renewable power in rural areas and reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. The computational fluids dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate the proposed design for further analysed and improve both the power output and efficiency using ANSYS CFX17.1.The performance &nbsp;of a micro Kaplan turbine has been predicted such as power output and efficiency. Furthermore, the effect of blades number showed a significant influence on the turbine’s power output and efficiency. Generally, improvement of proposed design configurations are presented for understanding the flow field in a Kaplan turbine runner.</p> Layth H. Jawad Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-29 2019-09-29 27 3 1 12 Salinity Pollution of Groundwater in South of Iraq https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2492 <p>Generally, water considers as the most important components in the development of an area, while groundwater considered as a major potable, agricultural and industrial source of water in many locations. Groundwater was once thought to be preserved from contamination by of rock and soil layers, which act as filters. Depending on eighty-six wells, the aquifer formed by Dibdibba and alluvial fan in the eastern and northeastern part of the area while only Dibdibba formation forming the aquifer in the west of the area. The aquifer was investigated during fieldwork where geographical position, elevations, static water levels, depths, thicknesses, maximum yields as well as water sampling have been carried out. Depending on hydrochemical properties, the studied area characterize by groundwater polluted with salinity while a small area located to the west was unpolluted zone. Physicochemical analysis of groundwater aquifer is brackish to saline water. Groundwater quality of aquifer not recommended to be used for human and irrigation purposes, even so the farmers used this water for irrigation and animal purposes depending on soil nature and plants.</p> Hussein Ilaibi Zamil Al-Sudani Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-29 2019-09-29 27 3 13 24 The Effect of Enternal and External Environmental Protection Variables of Blood Diseases and Tumors Centers https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2493 <p>The aim of protecting of all the structural vocabulary of the centers of blood diseases and tumors is to improve the health situation in general and to protect cancer patients and all workers in particular by providing protection and complementary services for the effects of the environment and the internal environment and waste management. "The local literature on these important determinants and determinants in the organization of integrated protection between the inside and outside, "it is be the research problem of this study, to become the goal of this study is</p> <p>"To ensure the protection of all structural vocabulary of the structure of the premises of the centers of blood diseases and tumors of external environmental influences, as well as to ensure the protection of the surrounding environment from the environmental effects of the interior by adopting strict protection systems adopted by global experiences in the configurations of the building “, Selected case study presentts the results of the impact of internal and external environmental protection on blood and tumor centers.</p> Zainab Ali Abdulwaheed Bahjat Rashsd Shahin Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-29 2019-09-29 27 3 25 43 A Review on Flat Slab Punching Shear Reinforcement https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2494 <p>Flat slab system is a concrete plate propped on columns without the existence of beams. During the former century, flat slabs have been used widely in different building types. In general, flat slabs are made from brittle materials and also have a finite depth; thus, flat slabs may undergo to fail due to punching shear or high deflections. Therefore, these criteria should be considered in the design of flat slabs and ignoring both of them had led to several crumbling down to many constructions in the past. To enhance the flat slab performance against failure due to punching and deflections, additional reinforcement should be supplied in the column region. In this paper, a review is presented to study the mechanism of punching shear in flat slabs and describe different types that used for reinforcement against punching shear.</p> Ahmed Sagban Saadoon Abdulnasser Mohammed Abbas Haleem K. Hussain Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 44 58 Mixed Land Use and its Effect in Integration of the Residential Neighborhood https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2495 <p>Mixed use is one of the principles used in the development to solve problems of zoning and its negative effects in urban environments, which have been diagnosed with loss of vitality and integration. The research defines mixed use as the integration of a range of activities and functions of urban land uses within the residential area within different dimensions and spatial levels in order to achieve integration that supports the vitality and diversity of the place. The main problem of research was that "there is no clear perception of the role of mixed use in the integration of the residential neighborhood.". The objective of the research is to built a comprehensive theoretical framework that includes the vocabulary and values of the integration of the residential neighborhood. The research hypothesis was that mixed use plays a role in the integration of the residential neighborhood. The research followed the analytical method. The theoretical framework was applied on one of Baghdad's neighborhoods, namely Al-Saydia district, which was planned according to the development plans of the polservice housing policy . In order to test the research hypothesis, the research adopted three methods of measurement (syntactic analysis, mathematical equation, questionnaire form).</p> <p>The research findings was that mixed use plays a role in achieving urban integration through the urban nuclei and its location, and achieving functional integration through the feature of urban fabric diversity, and the vitality of the public realm, and finally achieving the physical integration through the feature of centrality and spatial differentiation of the fabric, as well as accessibility.</p> Sanaa Sati Abbas Riyad Fikrat Najat Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 59 75 Fifth Generation (5G) New Radio (NR) Channel Codes Contenders Based on Field- Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA): A Review Paper https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2496 <p>The increased demands for quality, like high throughput, low-latency, wide coverage, energy consumption, cost and reliable connections in mobile services, multimedia and data transmission impose the use of advance technical requirements for the next fifth-generation (5G) new radio (NR). One of the most crucial parts in the physical layer of the new generation is the error correction coding technique. Three schemes, namely; Turbo, low density parity check (LDPC), and polar codes are potentially ‎considered as the candidate codes for both data and control channels. The competition is evaluated in terms of error correction capability, computational complexity, and flexibility. The parallelism, flexibility and high processing speed of Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) make it preferable in prototyping and implementation of different codes. This paper presents a survey on the current literatures that deals with FPGA-based decoder design associated with the previously mentioned channel codes.</p> Ahmed A. Hamad Mohammed Khalid Ibrahim Abdulrasul A. Al-hayder Sarah Alaa Tamkeen Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 76 83 Dry Sliding Wear Characteristics of EN 24 Steel Hardened by ND: YAG Laser https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2497 <p>The aims of this investigation is to survey influence of ND:YAG Laser surface treatment of dry sliding wear features of EN 24 steel, which is medium carbon low alloy steel. Many parts of automotive, railways, marine and electric power generators are made from this alloy with distinctive properties as high strength and good wear resistance. According to ASTM G99 standards, length and diameter of the samples were (2 and 1) cm prepared by lathe machining. The prepared specimens were heat treated by using pulse ND: YAG Laser of 1064 nm wavelength and 6 Hz frequency with different energies as 500, 750 and 1000 mJ for 10 pulses. Whilst, wear inspect with dry slipping was carried out in pin–on–disc mechanism through changing loads and times from 5, to 25 N and 5 to 30 min in 5 intervals respectively. In addition, roughness and microhardness examinations were performed for the samples as received and after wear test. Photomicrographs were taken for the samples before, after surface Laser treatment, before, and after wear test. Results obtained increasing in hardness with improving in wear resistance. Surface roughness of treated specimens with 1000 mJ was more than with 500 and 750 mJ energies.</p> Ihsan AlNaimi Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 84 91 Prospect of Using Locally Dolomite Stone to Produce High Performance Concrete Pavement https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2498 <p>The fundamental objective of this research is to examine the manufacture of concrete pavement with a high performance by utilizing Samawa dolomite stone as a partial substitution to coarse aggregate (gravel). In this study, five mixes of concrete pavement were made containing Samwah stone as a coarse aggregate with the replacement percentage of (0%, 10%, 20%, 30% &amp; 40%) from gravel at level of strength type C30 (the requirement of concrete pavement). Fresh concrete mixes were subjected to slump test. Compressive strength, flexural strength, static modulus of elasticity was investigated for hardened concrete mixes at age of 28 days. Test results revealed that the inclusion of locally dolomite stone as a replacement to gravel in produced concrete pavement improves the hardened properties especially for flexural strength without any significant effect on workability requirement except at replacement percentage (40% of coarse aggregate). The best performance of produced concrete pavement was adopted with replacement percentage (30%) from gravel by using locally dolomite stone.</p> Fatimah Fahem Al-khafaji Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 92 98 Improvement of Heat Transfer Coefficient for A Cross Flow Heat Exchanger by Using the High Integral Finned Tube https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2501 <p>This study investigated experimentally of the heat transfer and the effect of fins in improving heat transfer for the cross flow heat exchangers with eight passes (smooth and high integral finned tubes) and that are cooled by air. Two models of heat exchangers are designed and manufactured for testing from pure copper metal. They were designed for comparison under different test conditions. The water flow rate in the inner tubes with (2, 3, 4, 5, 6) L/min with inlet temperatures of (50, 60, 70)<sup>o</sup>C. The air was passed outer the tubes with speeds (1, 1.7 and 2.3) m/s. This study resulted that the high integral finned tube was more improvement the heat transfer than the smooth tube. The enhancement of (<em>Q</em>) was (329.9%) for high integral finned tube and The enhancment factor (291%).</p> Farah Abdulzahra Taher Zena Khalefa Kadhim Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 99 113 Identification and Analysis of Hindering Factors of ICT Adoption in Project Management in Iraq https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2502 <p>Information and communication technology is very important in projects management. The objective of this research is to identify and analysis the factors hindering the adoption of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in projects management. In this research, 23 effective factors were collected from interview with engineers and experts in project managers and designers in consultant bureaus and construction companies. These factors are grouped into seven categories "Financial Factors, Human Factors, Technical Factors, Legal Factors, Administrative Factors, Cultural Factors, Security Factors ". A survey questionnaire of 75 respondents was distribute among different companies and consultant bureaus. A statistical analysis was done using SPSS and Excel packages. The relative important index was used to find out the most significant factors that hindering the adoption of ICT in projects management. The results accomplished from survey revealed that major factors hindering ICT adoption in projects management (ranked from the worst factors with Relative Important Index values, respectively) namely, Lack of training on ICT content of construction process (86.4%), Satisfaction with traditional working methods and tools (84.8%), Problem of ICT integration/compatibility with the work (82.9%), Poor interoperability between different applications/organizations (81.3%), poor quality and/or quantity of telecommunication infrastructure (81%).</p> Ali Ezzat Hassan Afrah Mohammed Hassan Kashkol Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 114 126 Properties of Flow through and over Gravel Basket Weir https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2503 <p>Construction of gravel basket weir in waterways causes water accumulation in front of this porous structure less than solid weir. In the present study the upstream flow depth, water surface profile and discharge coefficient are investigated through laboratory experiments. Four different weir lengths (15, 20, 25 and 30 cm) and four different degrees of gravel coarseness (1.13, 1.58, 2.19 and 2.27) are studied. Accordingly, sixteen models are tested under different free flow conditions. Analysis of the results show that in "through flow" regime the increase in weir length raises the generated upstream depth for all coarseness degrees by 30% while coarseness lowers the depth by 28%. In "transition flow", however, doubling the length increases the flow depth by 7%, but increasing coarseness from 1.13 to 2.72 cm mean diameter causes 7% reduction in flow depth. The "overflow" regime begins to appear when the depth to length ratio equals 0.75 for long weir, and about 1.54 for shortest weir. A comparison between gravel basket weir and corresponding solid weir indicates that average depth reduction is 7.5% for coarseness of 1.13 cm and 9% for coarseness of 2.72 cm. Mathematical models for water depth prediction for the three flow regimes are presented. For "overflow" an empirical formula is proposed to estimate the coefficient of discharge with acceptable accuracy.</p> Shaker A. Jalil Sarhan A. Sarhan Jihan M. Qasim Bshkoj S. Hussein Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 127 136 Fundiy Risk Monagement of School Duilding in Iraq https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2507 <p>The construction projects in general and the school buildings in particular in Iraq are suffering from an increasing number of risks, especially the financial risks facing the construction projects, because there are insufficient sources of funding to supplement the work and the delay of most school buildings projects, despite the need to do so. On the basic objectives of the construction project in order to improve the implementation of the school building projects, so it is necessary to use some hypotheses, which is the choice of the best solutions, treatments and proposals, which attendance in the study of the latest possible In order to achieve the advancement of school buildings projects and efficiency and improve performance, a set of proposed solutions are then presented. These solutions are examined and the future results of each solution are identified and useful in addressing the specific problem and the future impact of its application. The methodology used to search for indicators from the framework Theoretical and practical solutions to come out with a number of conclusions and recommendations aimed at achieving the objectives of the research</p> Mazin Fahem Neamah Afrah Mohammed Hassan Kashkol Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 137 146 The Reinforcement Al Zuot Intersection Bridges Approaches in AL- Ramadi Using Geo-Textile https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2509 <p>One of the major problems of implementation the bridges approaches, and often may be a settlement in the soil, which requires the creation of retaining walls on both sides of the approaches that fill by compacted soil. The needed dispensed of these walls, by filled the bridge shoulders&nbsp; by reinforced soil and precast concrete sheets thereby saving the cost and time of the creation of this project in high degree. Soil reinforcement be homogeneous nor showing any settlement problem in the future.</p> <p>Research aims to reach a scientific theory to study the behavior of the weak clay soil when reinforcing fibers and the possibility of studying the various factors that influence this behavior and the possibility of reinforcing of bridge approaches using these fibers. Due to many of the problems that appeared in the most of the facilities at the implementation, it is revealed that the soil had happened to her settlement because the bearing is not commensurate to create a work of concrete with high loads, and these problems are what we are experiencing today when creating approaches bridges and abutments wall, it has become necessary to strengthen the soil to resist any it works arise.</p> <p>Through these laboratory tests, which were conducted on a sample of poor soils found that fibers geotextile working to increase the shear strength of the soil in order to increase soil effective shearing strength parameters &nbsp;as shown by the results of the direct shear test and this gives resistance to shearing the best of the soil due to the presence of fiber in soil.</p> <h3>Through field tests conducted on a sample of poor soils and soil fiber geotextile a way to test by the plate load bearing. The geotextile fiber loading working to increase the tolerability by more than twice the tolerability without fiber.</h3> Jassem Qasim Fadel Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 147 169 Investigation the Variation of Bulk Modulus of Elasticity on The Performance of Conventional Electrohydraulic System https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2510 <p>Basically,&nbsp; all hydraulic performance systems are extremely reliant on the &nbsp;rising of the oil temperature, due to an increase in the pressure, decrease lubricate moving parts, increases leakage and dissipate heat. This could lead to the variation in bulk modulus of elasticity for different working cnditions, which &nbsp;could be affected in the performance of the &nbsp;system. Accordingly, an attempt was made to examine&nbsp;&nbsp; the effect of the bulk modules of elasticity on the accurate position. Six pressure suppliers were &nbsp;critically used (20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70) bar at &nbsp;five oil temperatures (25, 40, 50, 60 and 70) °C. Experimental results showed that the maximum variation percentage in the actuator displacement at the &nbsp;same load occurred at &nbsp;70 °C<sup> &nbsp;</sup>oil temperature and there were 4.252%, 7.25% , 9.154% , 9.253%, 8,727%, 15.476 and 19.23% in 20 , 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 bar pressure supply, &nbsp;respectively.</p> Walaa Mousa Hashim Huda Akram Al-Salihi Aws Falah Hassan Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 170 181 Observation of Consolidation and Permeability Parameters of Soil Stabilized By Cutback Asphalt https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2511 <p>For design purposes, it`s necessary to know the compression rate of soil layers which might be happened when it`s subjected to effective stresses. Also, it`s essential to know the rate of flow through soil mass specially for the design of marine structures or earth embankment. These two important behavior could be predicted from the coefficient of consolidation (C<sub>v</sub>) and the coefficient of permeability (k). This study shows the effect of cutback asphalt stabilization on C<sub>v</sub> and k and other compressibility factors, the investigation was done for silty clay samples, specimens were prepared by mixing the soil with different percentage of asphalt from (0-10)% and subjected to one-dimensional consolidation test of 50mm diameter and 20mm height were done at soaked condition, it was conducted that C<sub>v</sub> increased for asphaltic soil of (2-6)% Cutback and decreased for soil with cutback of (8-10)%. On the other hand, the the coefficient of permeability (k) and the coefficient of volume change (m<sub>v</sub>) increased for soil with (2-4)% cutback and decreased by adding more cutback asphalt to soil till 10%. The compression index (C<sub>c) </sub>value increase to the optimum value at 2% cutback content then start to decrease till reaching the 10%. The re-compression index (C<sub>r)</sub> shows a general increase in values when add cutback asphalt to the soil, it increase until reaching its maximum value at 6% cutback content then decrease with increasing of cutback asphalt till 10%, the values of (C<sub>r</sub>) shows an increase for the 10% cutback from 8%, that’s might be due to increasing of swelling potential due to increasing of liquid limit and blocking of voids ratio.</p> Wisam Adil Al-Juboori Abbas Fadhil Al- Ameri Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 182 195 Study the Influence of Gas Pressure on the Tensile Behavior of TIG Stainless Steel Sheets https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2512 <p>This research work represents the study of the effect of using different gas pressures of argon on the tensile behavior of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded stainless steel sheets type (304). Different ranges of gas pressures (13-15 Kgf/cm<sup>2</sup>)and welding currents (80-100 Apm) were used to determine their influenceon the tensile mechanical properties (0.2% yield stress, ultimate tensile stress and elongation) of butt welded joints.Design of experiment (DOE) ‘version 10’ was used to establish the design matrix of experiments. Response surface methodology (RSM) technique was employed to obtain mathematical models for the three properties, which were analyzed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to verify statistically the adequacy of the resulted models. The resultant quadratic models with a confidence level of 95% revealed thatthe increase in both gas pressure and currentindividually results in a higher increase in the yield stress and elongation,and both were proportionated inversely,while their combined effect gave the lowest values.The gas pressure had a greater impact on the ultimate tensile stress than current. After numerical optimization, the maximum values of the mechanical properties were obtained with a maximum desirability value at the optimum values of gas pressure and current. Finally, confirmation tests were conducted at the optimum values of gas pressure and current to verify the validation of the maximum values of properties, and the error wasfound less than (4%) between the experimental and predicted results.</p> Samir Ali Amin Al-Rabii Lamyaa Mehdi Assad Ali Hussein Alwan Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 196 214 Experimental Investigation of Sandwich Panels with Different Types of Coarse Aggregate https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2514 <p>Concrete sandwich panel [CSP] is an innovative structural construction system. It is two or more layers of concrete separate by lightweight layers. The present work, the one-way sandwich panels are comprised of two lightweight concrete layers, between them a layer of cork, the dimensions of the slabs were (1100mm total length × 400 mm width × 90mm thickness). The outer concrete layers were connected by steel bar in the shape of truss. An experimental program was carried out on four slabs, one of them was solid slab while the three other slabs were sandwich slabs. The main variable of this study was the type of course aggregate which used in the outer concrete layers. The slabs have been tested as a simply support span under two points load. Experimental results proved that the using of sandwich panels will have enhanced many properties such as toughness, ductility and maximum value of deflection, in addition to the main benefit is a total weight reduction. The differ in the type of coarse aggregate considerably influences the structural behavior of the panels.</p> Laith Sh. Rasheed Suad Abbas Ali Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 215 223 Analyzing Mechanical Properties of Silica Gel Filled with Carbon Fiber into Polymeric Composite https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2515 <p>In this study, the effect of (1%, 2%, 3%, 4% weight fraction) waste silica gel reinforced with (3% weight fraction) carbon fiber into unsaturated polyester resin was investigated on the tensile properties, impact strength and shore D hardness. These samples of polymeric composite materials were manufactured by (Hand-lay-up) method. The average particle size of the silica gel was (5.3 to 136.4 µm). The mechanical properties were analyzed using SPSS one way analysis of variance to determine which weight fraction has more influence on mechanical properties where statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results showed that the highest mean values (164 ± 4.000 MPa), (7.367 ± .2517GPa) and (83.600 ± .2590) for tensile strength, elasticity modulus and hardness shore D respectively were recorded in sample (UP+3% C.F+4%Silica gel), while the highest mean values of elongation percentage (3.200 ± .2100), (2.700 ± .2100 ),(2.233 ± .1528) were recorded in samples (UP, UP+3% C.F, UP+3% C.F+1% silica gel) respectively, also highest mean values (10.9667±.07638) of impact strength was recorded in sample (UP+3% C.F+3% silica gel). The results of SPSS show that when (P) values less than (0.05) a significant effect of the filler material on the mechanical properties will be.</p> Reem Alaa Mohammed Aseel B. AL-Zubidi Marwah Subhi Attallah Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 224 237 Landscape Ecology in Riparian Buffer Zone Abu Nuwas Buffer Zone in Baghdad as a Case Study https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2516 <p>The buffer zone is an active component of the riverbank. It is the boundary between the bank and the river. Any damage that occurs in the buffer zone causes a number of problems in its natural and ecological structure. Most of these problems are diagnosable and observed in the outer space of the buffer zone. The appearance of these problems is in varying proportions depending on the type of human intervention in them. This intervention can have a negative effect on the riverbank on the one hand and on the river on the other. In light of this, studies have been directed towards examining various ecological mechanisms that ensure the safety of dealing with outer spaces in river buffer areas.</p> <p>The main research problem is represented in the lack of ecological value of the buffer zone in Abu Nuwas area in Baghdad City, as well as the lack of urban and design treatments causing a huge challenge of integration between the river and the city. In addition, the lack of connectivity with the buffer zone, which is a basic component connecting the water to the land. Moreover, few studies have dealt with this topic in studying the strategies of the landscape ecology of in the river buffer zone of Baghdad City. Thus, the research objective is to determine the mechanisms and indicators of the ecology of outer space, and apply them at the edge of the Tigris River (as a case study). Represented by Abu Nuwas area and park in Baghdad City, with the aim of further diagnosis of the situation of the buffer zone and the extent to which ecological values are applied.</p> <p>The results of the research in both its theoretical and practical aspects have produced a clear approach to ecological strategies that achieve buffer zone ecology and the development of specific mechanisms to provide a safe and effective river environment that accommodates various events and uses in the buffer zone, and enhance public awareness of its importance.</p> <p>The buffer zone is an active component of the riverbank. It is the boundary between the bank and the river. Any damage that occurs in the buffer zone causes a number of problems in its natural and ecological structure. Most of these problems are diagnosable and observed in the outer space of the buffer zone. The appearance of these problems is in varying proportions depending on the type of human intervention in them. This intervention can have a negative effect on the riverbank on the one hand and on the river on the other. In light of this, studies have been directed towards examining various ecological mechanisms that ensure the safety of dealing with outer spaces in river buffer areas.</p> <p>The main research problem is represented in the lack of ecological value of the buffer zone in Abu Nuwas area in Baghdad City, as well as the lack of urban and design treatments causing a huge challenge of integration between the river and the city. In addition, the lack of connectivity with the buffer zone, which is a basic component connecting the water to the land. Moreover, few studies have dealt with this topic in studying the strategies of the landscape ecology of in the river buffer zone of Baghdad City. Thus, the research objective is to determine the mechanisms and indicators of the ecology of outer space, and apply them at the edge of the Tigris River (as a case study). Represented by Abu Nuwas area and park in Baghdad City, with the aim of further diagnosis of the situation of the buffer zone and the extent to which ecological values are applied.</p> <p>The results of the research in both its theoretical and practical aspects have produced a clear approach to ecological strategies that achieve buffer zone ecology and the development of specific mechanisms to provide a safe and effective river environment that accommodates various events and uses in the buffer zone, and enhance public awareness of its importance.</p> Safa Aubaid Khauin Hoda Al-Alwan Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 238 255 Load-Carrying Capacity of Patch-Loaded Stiffened Steel Plate Girders https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2526 <p style="direction: rtl;">This research is aiming to establish an alternative model for determining the ultimate patch load of plate girders with longitudinal stiffener. The proposed model is based on empirical equations and regression analysis and verified with a wide database domain that exists in the literature. A comparison between the results obtained from the proposed model and those obtained from the BS 5400 code specifications is also made in this study. It is found that the proposed model shows a very good agreement with the test results and it is more quite accurate than the BS 5400 code predictions.</p> Ahmed Sagban Saadoon Abdulnasser Mohammed Abbas Ali AbdulhasanKhalaf Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 256 268 Effect of Sawdust and Zirconia Addition on the Dielectric Strength of Iraqi Kaolin Composite. https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2527 <p>Iraqi kaolin&nbsp; is used as a principle part of the study after additives Sawdust in weight ratio (10%) and (2%) Poly Vinyl Alcohol (PVA) as a binding material. (Micro or Nano) Zirconia has been added to the composite in different weight ratio (0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) for the purpose of improving dielectric strength. Samples are formed in a semi-dry pressing with pressure of about (20 Mpa).</p> <p>The formulation is achieved by using a template of (12 mm) diameter and a time of about (2 min). Then, the prepared samples have been sintered.</p> <p>Firing process was carried out by three temperature degrees ( 800, 900, 1000 ) ºC for mean heating about 5 <sup>º</sup>C/min and remained at every temperature degree for one hour.</p> <p>The results showed that the increase in the proportion of (Micro or Nano) Zirconia results in increasing the value of dielectric strength and the best results where achieved by adding Nano Zirconia. The increasing of the Firing temperature also leads to increase the value of the dielectric strength.</p> Najah Kadum Alian Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 27 3 269 284 The Effect of Symbolic Renewal Strategy in Adopting Local Architecture Heritage https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2528 <p>Despite the accumulated knowledge of the legacy of local architecture and the influence of foreign symbols, it was characterized by a lack of knowledge of how to adapt these symbols and patterns of foreign creativity to produce a new local architectural dialogue addresses the mind of the recipient and raises his emotional motives. Based on this, the basic research objectives were determined as; the scientific need to know the influence of foreign symbols in the production of the local architectural text and the effective mechanisms that influence the development of the characteristics of the local architectural form to produce contemporary Iraqi architecture. To achieve this, a theoretical framework for research based on specialized architectural studies was constructed, consisting of the following main words: (Exploration of the symbolic act produced for local architectural text, patterns as a basis for generating architectural form and the forms of creation adopted for the symbolic renewal strategy).</p> <p>On the practical side, (212) architectural design was surveyed for the projects of graduate students of architecture at the University of Technology within the period of time (2012-2017), and it was discovered that nine projects were concerned with studying the heritage of the local architecture, which were selected as research samples for qualitative measurement. The process has shown the role of the symbolic renewal strategy, its mechanisms, patterns and characteristics in achieving a contemporary local architectural text, and the effectiveness of balanced matching between inherited and incoming patterns in the preservation of identity and all the privileges of inheritance and the innovations that modernity produces in the creative march of man.</p> Iman Mohammed Matloob Barizat Qassim Fahmi Ahmed Hashim Al-Aqabi Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-10-10 2019-10-10 27 3 285 298 The Effect of the Characteristics of Moderation Values on Composing Islamic Arabic Architecture (The mosque is a case study) https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2533 <p>Architecture is based on a set of formation rules based on mutual dialogue with its temporal and spatial environment. Value systems in all their forms represent one of the most influential factors in the formation of architecture. As the Islamic approach has value systems formed by the moderation approach which is based on integration and balance between the duals while conserving the elements in its time and place. The Arabic Islamic architecture seeks to make the characteristics of the Islamic moderation values ​​ the main approach in the formulation and composition in alignment time and place. A commitment to these characteristics represents the preservation of the authenticity, gravity and balance of Arabic Islamic architecture. The general research problem emerges as being the lack of knowledge about the effect characteristics of moderation values ​​on Islamic approach, while the focus of this research is related to understand the nature of the relationship between the value as amoderation system and the composition in the Arabic Islamic architecture. As a result, the research problem was formulated as the lack of enough knowledge about the characteristics of moderation values and their impact on composition of Arabic Islamic architecture and its formulation at both intellectual and formal levels and their reflection on mosques composition. The objective of the research is to construct a comprehensive theoretical framework that tries to enhance the understanding of characteristics of moderation value system and its effect on composing of Arabic Islamic architecture and its formulation on both intellectual and formal levels.</p> <p>&nbsp;This study assumed that the variance of the characteristics of the values system leads to the variation of composition Arabic Islamic architecture. To check this hypothesis, its application was investigated in mosques a case study. It's concluded that the temporal and spatial characteristics of the value system are the most influential factors in composing Arabic Islamic architecture, followed by other characteristics.</p> Mahdi Saleh A.H. AL-Ataabi Ali Mosa Karrer Nadhim AL-Shahmanie Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-10-10 2019-10-10 27 3 299 320 Physical Behavior of a.PP/LDPE Blends under Different Conditions https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2534 <p>The aim of this work was to make LDPE /a.PP blends for&nbsp; economically attractive by (10/90, 20:80, 30:70, &amp;50:50 w/w) ratios via injection molding carried out under 180 <sup>o</sup> C injection temperatures and to evaluate their mechanical properties including :( Density, Tensile Strength, Elongate to Break, Impact&nbsp; Strength, Bending Modulus,&amp;&nbsp; Young's&nbsp; Modulus . we notice that the blend behavior dependent on its composition, and injection temperature .</p> <p>Results show there are an increasing of impact strength and bending modulus with increasing of (LDPE) contain and the highest value of these properties were at (50:50) weight ratio, while it has the highest Young's modulus at (30:70) wt%. 180 <sup>o </sup>C as injection temperature leads to translate the mechanical behavior from ductile to stiff behavior. DSC curves show that the blends is immiscibility , also thermal degradation was decreased with increasing of LDPE to (50%).Also the Melt flow index decreased from (5.04)-(4.01) (g/10 min) with increasing of LDPE from (30%) to (50%).</p> Balkees M. Al-Dabbagh Hanaa J. Khadim Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 27 3 321 331 Experimental and Numerical Study of The Crack Position and Depth Effects on Natural Frequencies of Turbine Blades. https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2535 <p>&nbsp;Turbine blades are the most important and expensive part of turbines; the losses due to maintenance is very large so must be analyze the causes of failure that may occur due to manufacturing defects or vibrations resulting from operating and other service conditions.</p> <p>In this work will, focus on vibrationthat occurs due to operating conditions. The blade represents as a cantilever beam manufactured fromaluminum, a square crack have constant breadth 5 mm formed on the blade for positions from (5 to 30) cm to fixed end with different crack depths (2,4,6) mm.The experimental work results were computed by using impulse test, and numerical result gain using finite element method. Good agreement was found between the results.The results showed that the increasing in crack’s depth caused decreasing in the fundamental natural frequency of blade for all crack positions.</p> Qasim Abbas Atiyah Mustafa Rahman Falih Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 27 3 332 344 Numerical Modelling and Experimental Verification of New Observations of the Two Phases Interaction in a Vertical and Inclined Closed Wickless Heat Pipe https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2536 <p>Heat pipes are one of the modern solutions for heat release from hot sources or for heat homogeneity in liquid or solid reservoirs. The interactions between the two phases of its working fluid are suggested classically by researchers and still not discovered deeply. In this study about 480 experimental and numerical tests are carried out to confirm the previous published observation of spatial flow patterns of the two phases inside a wickless copper Thermosyphon Heat Pipe THP partially filled with water. Numerical results are gotten from a three dimensional transient Computational Fluid Dynamics 3DCFD numerical solution. Different factors are included into 3DCFD model to reach reality in results and suffering from complex calculation procedures and increase simulation running time. The high agreement percentages between the experimental and 3DCFD for the temperatures distribution profile and magnitudes confirm the 3DCFD results. 3DCFD solution contours of steam volume fractions SVF show that both phases flow in a 3D spatial, non-steady and non-continues flow streams. Both phases suffering phase change and heat transfer from each to other during flow up (steam) and flow down (condensate). Thermal performance increase about (+ve. (10%)) due to inclination from vertical to 60º then falling to (-ve. (15%)) at 15º (for filling ratio 50% and heat supplied 200W). that’s because inclination lead the complex spatial flow to be a uniform circulation flow, hence it’s lead to non-homogeneity in evaporation and condensation processes and finally result in reduction of thermal performance.</p> Alaa A. B. Temimy Adnan A. Abdulrasool Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-10-10 2019-10-10 27 3 345 362 Study of Mechanical Properties of Carbon Steel Plate SA-516 Gr. 70 Welded by SAW Using Square-Shape Joint Design https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2538 <p>Submerged arc welding (SAW) is a fusion type welding and it is considered as one of the most important welding types due to its inherent capabilities of high welding speed, high deposition rate, welding large thickness plates owing to its deep penetration characteristic and many other advantages. In this study, the goal was to investigate the effect of welding parameters, namely (welding current and welding speed) as well as the joint design on the mechanical properties (yield stress, bending force on the face of the weldment and hardness of the weld metal. Experiments were conducted employing Design of Experiment (DOE) software and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) technique. The experiments were performed by welding (26) pieces of ASME SA-516 Gr. 70 steel plate with dimensions of (300 mm × 150 mm × 10 mm) to produce (13) specimens depending upon the design matrix developed via the DOE. Results manifested that the optimum process parameters for maximum yield stress, maximum bending force and minimum hardness were (202.659 MPa, 21.662 KN and 139.232 HV), respectively at (425 amps) welding current and (35 cm/min) welding speed, where the arc voltage was held constant at (37 volts). Finally, it was found that the predicted and experimental results of yield stress, bending force and hardness agree very well according to the ultimate error (1.5%, 1.3%, and 3.4 %), respectively.</p> Mohannad Yousif Hanna Samir Ali Amin Abdulaziz Saud Khider Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 27 3 263 378 Engineering Sciences Vol. 27, No. 3, 2019 https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2539 <p><em>E<strong>ngineering&nbsp;</strong>S<strong>ciences Vol</strong><strong>. 27, No. 3, 2019</strong></em></p> Engineering Sciences Vol. 27, No. 3, 2019 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 27 3 1 2