Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong><span style="color: #2969b0; font-family: Georgia, serif;">J</span></strong><span style="font-family: Georgia,serif;">ournal of&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">U</span></strong>niversity of&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">B</span></strong>abylon for&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">E</span></strong>ngineering&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">S</span></strong>ciences&nbsp;<strong>(<span style="color: #2969b0;">JUBES</span>)</strong> is a peer-reviewed open access journal, monthly publishing high-quality research and review papers covering all aspects of recent advances in engineering dealing with:&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Electrical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Mechanical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Material Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Civil Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Chemical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Architectural Engineering</span></li> </ul> <p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">&nbsp;ISSN:&nbsp;<strong>‎<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2616-9916</a></strong></span></p> University of Babylon en-US Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 2616-9916 Study the Addition Effect of Nano &Micro Titanium on the Mechanical Properties of PMMA Composites <p>The present paper focuses on the study of the mechanical properties of PMMA used in the preparation of dental molds has many problems. The purpose of this work is to eliminate as much as possible. Most of the problems caused by using polyethyl metha acrylate alone are the addition of titanium granules of different sizes. In&nbsp;act out&nbsp;to&nbsp;end&nbsp;a&nbsp;passable&nbsp;and&nbsp;identical&nbsp;direction&nbsp;of Ti&nbsp;sods&nbsp;in the polymer&nbsp;influence, mixer milling process was applied. The study is conducted in the preparation of samples of PMMA with micronized titanium granules at( 0%, 0.5%, 1% , 1.5%), and other specimens of polymer are reinforced with titanium nanoparticles and in the same proportions. The tests are carried out to determine the validity of the composite material for use, the results are obtained from the tests of impact,and tensile testing where the specimens are reinforced with nanoparticles whose mechanical properties are (6&nbsp; J/mm<sup>2</sup>,5.5MPa) the highest percentage of titanium nanoparticles, Corrosion rate decreased from(0.677 to 0.0015) a percentage (14.77% ) ie&nbsp; give the highest and best results.</p> Baraa H. Al khaqani Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 1 8 The Analysis of Water Discharge Frequency for Diyala River D/S Derbendi-Khan Dam <p>The analysis of water discharge frequency for Diyala river D/S Derbendi-Khan Dam have been computed using some statistical models such are " Gumbel, Pearson III, log Pearson III and log-normalIII. The models were‏ applied to annual water discharge for Diyala river. The water discharge magnitudes computed for many return periods‏ . Firstly, The models were Compared using different statistical measures " bias, standard error and root mean square error. The Chi-Square test was used to evaluate the goodness of fits for these models. According to this test and using the aforementioned measures, the Log-Normal III&nbsp; distribution could be taken as the best for the water discharge series. This type of model is useful for designing the dam or spillway by computing the magnitude of water discharge flood versus different return periods.</p> Wisam A. Abidalla Ahmed S. Naser Ali H. Hommadi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 9 20 The Impact of Sustainability Concept on the Architecture of Islamic Centers (Clarity of Identity - as a Case Study) <p>&nbsp;Achieving the concept of sustainability in its aspects (environmental, social, economic) is an important orientation during the design of buildings in general and mosques and Islamic centers in particular, since the Islamic faith calls for respect for the environment and man and the preservation of the economy, where the general problem was the increasing interest in achieving these axes in accordance with high-tech technologies. Losing the clarity of its identity as an Islamic architecture because sustainability solutions may have a profound impact on the overall shape of the mosque where it represented the particular problem of research, and the research problem was defined by Cognitive impairment in the impact of the concept of sustainability on the clarity of&nbsp; identity in Islamic centers. Because the importance of Islamic centers in the definition of the Islamic religion, especially in the West. The aim of the research is to reach the design and technical principles recommended to be used in the architecture of contemporary Islamic centers to serve the achievement of sustainability in all its aspects without covering the features of its identity as Islamic architecture.The hypothesis of research (high-tech solutions to achieve sustainability affects the clarity of the identity of Islamic centers). The research methodology adopted a conceptual framework of knowledge to address the definitions of the concepts of sustainability in architecture in general and the definition of mosques and the identity of Islamic architecture as well as analysis and devise sustainability solutions through examples of traditional and contemporary mosques, also criticism of previous studies that addressed these concepts of sustainability and the identity of mosque architecture ,and then build the theoretical framework and extract the main and secondary&nbsp; variables, and then the practical part, which addressed elected samples of Islamic centers (global and Arab) to reach the final conclusions and recommendations. The most important research reached is the possibility of using high-tech technologies to achieve sustainability in the construction of Islamic centers without blurring the features of its identity as Islamic architecture, and the need to emphasize the clarity of the Islamic identity of sustainable Islamic centers as a pride in the Islamic faith and the historical legacy of the ancient mosque architecture. Variables of its theoretical framework as design / technical criteria preferred to be taken into account in the design of contemporary sustainable Islamic centers characterized by the clarity of its Islamic identity.</p> Mahdi Saleh A.H. AL-Ataabi Nabaa T. Muhammad AL-Khafaji Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 21 45 The Effect of Islamic Legislation on Contemporary Arab Islamic Architecture <p>Religion is one of the most effective intellectual guides in architecture. Thus, the Islamic religion, with its intellectual and practical dimensions, is the main effective of architectural products in form and substance. Islamic legislation represents the practical aspect. Each society has its own culture, customs and traditions. Therefore, Islamic legislation is an integrated system that governs the actions and results of this society, and that the goal of the Islamic religion and legislation is to achieve and save the five purposes: religion, self, money, supply and birth as well as justice, equality and human life reform. Architecture is one of the most effective means by which human beings achieve these goals, as well as being the most expressive of the culture of societies, which is powerful and effective in other societies, which entails religious influence in architectural design it is the general problem of research</p> <p>As well as the Islamic legislations derived from the Quranic texts and the noble Hadiths on the urban work which formed the special problem of the research and the study of a group of studies. The research problem was identified by: (<strong>the lack of knowledge of the impact of Islamic legislation on the crystallization of architectural products Contemporary at the level of thought and application</strong>), and the study aims to enrich knowledge about the role of Islamic legislation in the development of Arab Islamic architecture with the contents of the essence of the spirit of the age and the research adopted the descriptive analytical methodology, which includes the construction of a conceptual framework and the construction of a theoretical framework, which is the first step in solving the research problem .</p> <p>The most important of the research findings is (between communication and continuity, the human architecture to create creative products linked to the architecture of Islamic architecture and the ability of those products to keep up with contemporary through the realization of human needs and desires changing time and place) to conclude the research conclusions, recommendations and sources</p> Mahdi Saleh A.H. Al - Ataabi Sarah Seelan Hussain Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 46 61 Attributing the Electrical Conductivity into Asphalt Composite Using Kaoline-Dominant Mixture Clays <p>Asphalt mixtures have great potentials as electrical connectors for many functions in the field of self-sensing, hospitalization and energy collection. Electrical conductivity (EC) controls the pouring of asphalt concrete to a priority stage for such presentations, taking into account some additives that minimize damage to basic materials over time. Previously fibre conductivity tests are used in the conductivity of the asphalt mixture. There is now a need for mitigation due to the sudden change in the ER electrical curve of the filtration conditions of the down mixtures, considering the sudden transition from the electrical resistivity (ER) values ​​to the conduction phase (EC). Efficient clay mixtures to relieve defects of sudden changes are considered eco-friendly. Therefore, this study looks for an output where encapsulation efficiency used by directing the electrical conductivity (EC) of asphalt concrete only by adding a specific content of bentonite content in the kaolin-dominant mixture between (KB0.1) to (KB0.4). Therefore, eight different types of clay mixture KB0.1 to KB0.4 and Kaolinite 0.9-Sand 0.1 to KS0.4 have different geophysical properties and different geotechnical parameters. EC values. ER values are evaluated by asphalt-mixed samples containing different contents of the dominant K-clay mixture.</p> Ameer J. Al-Shammari Qais. A.J. N. Al Rashid Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 62 72 Geotechnical Evaluation of Soils in Ammarah/Central Missan, Iraq <p>Before any system of urban development is adopted, soil stratigraphy should be studied and geotechnical information should be determined. In the current study, fundamental geotechnical data for Ammarah city were collected and the inherent properties of soils and the manner of soil layers distribution were studied. Furthermore, problems involved in the soil of the study area were reviewed. Site investigations and laboratory testing showed that the area of interest is characterised by silt of different percentages distributed over the depth. Standard penetration and Vane shear test results revealed a horizontal discontinuity of soil layers. Investigating and reviewing soil problems showed that Ammarah soils are free of problems associated with sand dunes and high gypsum content. On the other hand, sabkha soil is widely distributed over the area due to salts and the shallow depth of water table.</p> Ihsan Al-abboodi Ahid Z. Hamoodi Samoel M. Salih Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 73 80 Affective Factors on Reliability of Laboratory Tests Based on ISO 17025:2005 <p>The reliability of the laboratory tests is the main pillar in the applied side of the quality of the construction projects. The construction materials used in these projects cannot be accepted or rejected until they have passed the laboratory examination according to which these materials are accepted or rejected..</p> <p>Many organizations have sought to achieve the competitive advantage by providing high quality services through the implementation of the overall quality management standards. It was necessary for the construction laboratories to adopt the quality management method in their work, in particular the application of the standards of ISO 17025: 2005, Which improve the performance of these laboratories in terms of administrative and technical.</p> <p>This research includes a statistical study of a sample of construction laboratories, construction contracting companies and project implementation entities in some government departments to determine the factors affecting the reliability of the laboratory tests. The methodology used in the research will provide recommendations and suggestions to help the laboratory staff focus on the factors influencing the Reliability of tests and handling them according to the&nbsp; ISO 17025: 2005.</p> Ali A. Jaber Raid S. Abdali Haider A. Hammood Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 81 98 The Impact of Technological Development on the Generation of Architectural Styles <p>The rapid development of multiple technology has greatly affected the products and architectural details becoming they do not belong to a particular identity, and was influenced by western forms, and the products expressed their compositions and details about the individual's influence on contemporary architectural movements and the absence of their relationship with the identity of the individual and society, Thus it negatively affects the identity of local architecture, <strong>the problem of research</strong> was the existence of a knowledge gap about the impact of contemporary technology in the generation of architectural styles, but <strong>the</strong> <strong>objective of the research</strong> is to study the impact of contemporary technology on the generation architectural details represented by architectural styles, <strong>research assumes</strong> new styles derived from local architectural styles with a local identity can be generated that reflect the values of society and are influenced by technological development .The practical study included the analysis of Western architecture and Arab and local architectural products based on the concept of technological evolution and the generation of architectural styles by studying the architectural details represented by the elevations of buildings. The research has found will be used architectural styles read from local architecture in architectural productions influenced by technological development, and it is possible to depended on the vocabulary of generation to produce architectural styles that are keeping with technological development and linked to the identity of contemporary local architecture.</p> Sura Kassim Ameen Ibrahim Jawad Al-Yousif Ali Musa Hussin Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 99 107 Spacing Size Effect between Columns on the Blast Load Response of Reinforced Concrete Frames <p>The present research focuses on studying the effect of the geometric shape of the redistribution of spaces between the internal columns on the behavior of reinforced concrete structural frames exposed to explosive load, and the evaluation of the damage caused by that load on the structures. The eight-story reinforced concrete structure and three bays are designed according to the American Code ACI-14. SAP2000 (V.20) was used for analysis, design and study of the elastic – plastic structural response under the blast loads, through several variables, including the maximum lateral and plastic displacements, the number and condition of the formed plastic hinges, and index damage. The two-dimensional structural element was represented by a three-degree of freedom (beam-column) model, where the interaction between the axial force and the moment was used as a yield surface to follow the transition from elastic to plastic behavior for the columns, while the yield moment was defined as a yield criterion for the same behavior according to the principle of accumulated plasticity (Plastic Hinge) at the end of element. The uniformity in the column spacing, for a geometrical shape considerations, having a clear effect on reducing the deformations and plastic displacements of the structure and reducing the damage index&nbsp; with respect to the energy dissipated after the structural response. As a result, the distance between the mass and stiffness centers of the structural members affect the response of frame, the least distance between these two centers results in least damage to the structural elements compared to other symmetrical cases.</p> Sofyan Yonis Ahmed Riyadh Muauaid Malallh Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 108 119 Improving Collapsibility and Compressibility of Gypseous Soil using Cement Material <p>Gypseous soils exist in many regions in the world. It is necessary to study the properties of such soils due to the damage caused by these soils to buildings on or in it. This paper presents the results of experimental studies on the compressibility and collapsibility of Gypseous soil in Basrah and show the effect of mixing cement material with Gypseous soil on those properties. The sandy soil, which covers the surface layer(up to 1m) for the two investigated areas(AL-Brgsia and AL-Zubair) consists of high gypsum content ( 63% ) and (34% ),&nbsp; respectively. The soil was found to be a “collapsible” soil. The cement material have been used as improving agents for such soil.</p> <p>The essential idea of this study represents an investigation of the possibility of using cement as additive with different percents (2%, 4%, 8%,10%, and 12%) to&nbsp; enhance these soils. Tests were conducted on 12 models of untreated and treated gypseous soil specimens to study their behavior as well as the effects on physical properties, collapsibility and compressibility characteristics. It is found that a reduction in collapsibility appraches 87 and 92 % for the 12 percent mixed cement to (AL-Brgsia and AL-Zubair) soil, respectively.</p> Fatimah Khaleel Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 120 131 Digital Algorithmic Generative Method of Case-based Design The generation of Primary School Plans as a Case Study <p>The use of programming languages in the field of architecture has strengthened the digital algorithmic approaches in the architectural design, which their main benefits lie in the possibility of rapid and easy generation of a wide range of design solutions. The generation and evaluation of more design solutions lead to more informed design decisions and the selection of the appropriate solution.</p> <p>The research adopted the digital algorithmic approach to generating architectural plans and investigates the possibility of using the visual programming applied in Grasshopper, the (plug-in) of Rhinoceros software. Its aim was to create and implement an algorithm prepared by researchers, which depends on a specific data in producing new designs for typical buildings plans, such as schools, without the use of ready software in the generation process.</p> <p>The research sought to obtain a number of alternative plans according to the user inputs. It hypothesized that the variation in the design inputs contributes effectively to the plurality of the generated design options.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The findings verified that the method was feasible regarding the problem with specific data under consideration. In addition, it showed the efficiency of the generative algorithm approach in producing various designs that meet the different inputs of the user.</p> Aseel Ibrahim AL-Habeeb Dhuha Abdulgani Al-kazzaz Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 132 165 Environmental Sustainability of Passenger Terminals in Airport Buildings <p>The current era is witnessing more efforts aimed at building a better, sustainable and more environmentally friendly world, according to which the idea of converting the largest and most polluted central operational infrastructure into environmentally friendly facilities exists, and airports are among the most important of those structures that are a source of major global environmental pollution, whether it is due to the high emission of air pollution, disturbing noise, land use and energy consumption, also passenger terminals are the main and important pillar of airport design.</p> <p>This paper is concerned with the environmental dimension of sustainability in passenger terminal in airports. Other studies dealt with these issues from different environmental levels. However, they were selective in approach, and do not provide satisfactory comprehensive knowledge of these issues. So far, localized experiments have put forward theoretical plans and strategies concerned with transforming passenger terminals into sustainable buildings without putting them into action, with a global environmental evaluation system. In light of this, the problem of the paper is set to be the non-comprehensively of the available data/studies on environmental sustainability of passenger terminals in airports, and the most important levels related to achieving this in general, as well as on a local level, in specific. To achieve this goal, a descriptive analytical statistical methodology is adapted to assess previous studies to arrive at applying them in Arab countries, as well as globally and locally. The paper hypothesizes that passenger terminals would achieve basic levels of sustainable environmental handling, according to which results are analyzed and conclusion and recommendations are formed.</p> Aseel Saleem Hussein Anwar Subhi Ramdan Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 166 184 Possibilities of Investing Urban Heritage <p>For many years, heritage studies have devoted their attention to abstract cultural values. However, knowledge of the economic value of the heritage on which investment decisions are based on preservation projects has become available, especially with the development of conservation economics, which is one of the new fields that benefit from the language of the economy as one of the basic concepts in our lives. In general, and its development in the field of preservation, especially. The research problem was: "Lack of literature, especially Arabic, which discusses investment and its potential in projects to preserve urban heritage". The research is based on the hypothesis that "investment directed at urban heritage conservation projects can contribute to the financing required by these projects, as well as contribute to the development of local communities." The research aims at: "Building the theoretical base of the concepts of investment in projects to preserve urban heritage, and indicating the potential of investment provided by the urban heritage, and then the role of investment in preserving the heritage and development activities on the urban and social levels."</p> <p>For the purpose of achieving the objective of the research and test hypothesis, the research included two main approaches. The first: the potential investment of urban heritage, and the second: the experiment of the Aga Khan Foundation in the Azhar Park project as a case study. The research concludes with number of conclusions and recommendations, the main conclusion being: Reuse and tourism (internal and external) represent the main investment potential in conservation projects.</p> Kadhim Mohsin Ibrahim Inaam Ameen Mohammed Salih Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 185 201 Biofuels (Bioethanol, Biodiesel,and Biogas) from Lignocellulosic Biomass :A Review <p>Gaseous emissions are from the use of fossil fuels when burned to cause an increase in global warming. Therefore, for sustainable development, consideration should be given to the production of green alternative energies that can be produced from the bio-waste available from food residues, agricultural residues or food factory residues. Converting waste to alternative energies or biofuels is a positive aspect due to the continuous increase in waste that creates environmental problems and traditional methods of waste disposal such as landfills or incineration produce gas.&nbsp; Biofuels production from lignocelluloses materials which are containing carbohydrate polymers and lignin, both of these components considered as a feedstock for produce chemical material, biofuel, biomethane, biohydrogen as alternatives of fossil fuel.&nbsp; In this paper, the researcher reviewed different pretreatments methods and recent technology that can be enhanced degradable of various biowaste or lignocelluloses biomass (agricultural waste, food residue, municipal wastes, and animal waste of) and conversion to biofuel (bioethanol, biodiesel, and biogas). The selection of the pretreatment of cellulosic material depends on the economic cost of producing biofuels; so many researchers around the world were trying to develop alternative energy (biofuel) production technology as an alternative to fossil fuels by reducing the economic cost of biowaste pretreatment.</p> Rana Abbas Azeez Firas K. Al-Zuhairi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 202 215 Structural Behavior of Reinforced continuous Reactive Powder Concrete Beams <p>The present study can be split into four aims next its four aims. The first aim was to check the effectiveness of compressive strength of normal concrete on the structural behavior of continuous beams.The second aim was to study the effectiveness of concrete type on the structural behavior continuous beams. The third aim was to study the effectineness of steel fibre ratio from (0 to 2.5%) on the structural behavior of RPC continuous beams. The fourth aim was to study the effectiveness of longitudinal reinforcement bar on the structural behavior of RPC continuous beams by using (CFRP and GFRP). Therefore, nine continuous beams consist of two span were tested under one-point loading for each span. Seven All beams had the matching overall length of 2700 mm, the clear span distance equal to 1250 mm foe each span, and the same width of 150 mm. The test results show that the continuous beam made with RPC had a superior ultimate load compared with the NC continuous beam and that the ultimate load increased when steel fibre ratio increased. The ultimate load of the continuous beam was also Found to be increased when the using of CFRP bar as a longitudinal reinforcement ratio. In supplement, the ultimate load of the continuous beam was decrees when using GFRP bar as a longitudinal reinforcement ratio.</p> Rawaa Raheem Kareem Hasanen Mohamed Deyab Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 216 228