Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong><span style="color: #2969b0; font-family: Georgia, serif;">J</span></strong><span style="font-family: Georgia,serif;">ournal of&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">U</span></strong>niversity of&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">B</span></strong>abylon for&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">E</span></strong>ngineering&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">S</span></strong>ciences&nbsp;<strong>(<span style="color: #2969b0;">JUBES</span>)</strong> is a peer-reviewed open access journal, monthly publishing high-quality research and review papers covering all aspects of recent advances in engineering dealing with:&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Electrical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Mechanical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Material Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Civil Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Chemical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Architectural Engineering</span></li> </ul> <p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">&nbsp;ISSN:&nbsp;<strong>‎<a href="https://extranet.issn.org/resource/issn/2616-9916#" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2616-9916</a></strong></span></p> University of Babylon en-US Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 2616-9916 Design Blocks in Simulink to Detection Singularity in the Workspace of Gough-Stewart Robot Manipulator https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/1967 <p style="text-align: justify;">This work deals with Gough-Stewart robot manipulator, which has six degrees of freedom, six actuators, fixed base, and moving platforms. Here, the Jacobian matrix derived to detect the singular point in the workspace for manipulator at determinant of Jacobian matrix equal to zero, then derived the equation of motion from the dynamic analysis by Lagrange method to verify the singular points with Jacobian where the forces increase rapidly at this point. Finally, design blocks in Simulink include the Jacobian matrix and the equations of motion to detection the singularities at any time for current input parameters (X, Y, Z, α, β, γ), where the determinant of the Jacobian equal to zero at maximum forces.</p> Hassan Mohammed Alwan Riyadh Ahmed Sarhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-01-28 2019-01-28 27 1 1 15 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.1967 Temperature – Potential Evapotranspiration Relationship in Iraq Using Thornthwaite Method https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/1968 <p style="text-align: justify;">One of the most important outcomes in the water balance equation for any natural area or water body is Evapotranspiration and it is also a crucial component of the hydrologic cycle. The relationship of temperature - evapotranspiration was obtained using the Thornthwaite method in Iraq by dividing the area into (7) sectors according to geographic latitude. Each sector has multi meteorological stations where (32) stations were used with different periods of records. A mathematical relationship was obtained between mean temperature and corrected potential evapotranspiration (PEc) with (97.45) to (99.84) coefficient of determination. Mean temperature has a symmetrical decreasing pattern from south-east towards north-west of Iraq affected by Mediterranean Sea climate conditions, while correcting potential evapotranspiration (PEc) has the opposite direction of increasing values due to a direct relationship with temperature.</p> Hussein Ilaibi Zamil Al-Sudani ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-01-28 2019-01-28 27 1 16 25 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.1968 The Effect of the Constants and Variables of the Architecture of the Holy Shrines in the Adjacent Urban Fabric https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/1969 <p style="text-align: justify;">Among the constants of holy attba building is the connection of its architecture with the values of the Islamic religion and the number of visits and the number of visitors to it. Time has passed and visitors are in a state of increasing, so their founders have taken the decision of change and development previously, which was compatible with the increase in numbers and maintaining the constants of the sacred architecture. The adjacent fabric changes according to the change in its holly architecture, and the adjacent fabric forms one unit with its attba, maintaining its shape for centuries. In the 1930s, its fabric was affected by the decision to demolish the walls of cities in general, including the holy cities, to open roads to facilitate the traffic movements of cars and the arrival of visitors with high speed as planned at the time. The Research problem despite&nbsp; the development of master plans for the Holy City cities because of the increase in the number of visitors, but did not solve the problem required. The aim of the research is to identify the visitor, the activities of the visitors, the spaces occupied by the activities, the religious and ideological activities, as well as the cultural and social activities, an important criterion in the holy attba building and its adjacent fabric, which has been affected by the increase of visitors and which is no longer sufficient for the activities generally been done throughout the year.</p> Mahmood Rezooky Hamid Almamoori Hamza ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-01-28 2019-01-28 27 1 26 50 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.1969 Stabilization of Soils Using Chemical Admixtures: A Review https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/1970 <p style="text-align: justify;">Searching for the best soil stabilizer to overcome problems occur by the soft soils are still<br> being the main concern, not only to achieve the required soil engineering properties but also by<br> considering the cost and the effect to the environment. This review paper presents the results of experimental researches on soil stabilization by using the most chemical admixtures, which involved cement, lime and fly ash, and their effectiveness in the engineering properties of soil. Based on the literature review, the results show that addition of these chemical additives lead to significant improvement in workability, strength, durability and mechanical behaviour. On the other hand, it lead to a reduction in shrinkage, plasticity, compressibility and swell characteristics of soil. Also, the curing duration had significantly improved the strength properties of the stabilized soil with chemical additives. Using of each chemical additive and its suitability for a specific soil is highlighted in the research.</p> Mohammed N J Alzaidy ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-01-28 2019-01-28 27 1 51 62 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.1970 Theoretical Framework for Design Recruitment Strategies In The Process Of Self-Healing Of Individuals https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/1971 <p style="text-align: justify;">The concept of self-healing based on characteristics of environment design of surrounding the individual ,Healing by design, one of the most important concepts corresponding to the healing environment or healing in the context of healthcare buildings, where the awareness of this concept reach on the characteristics of internal environment in general to make it more&nbsp; healthy, stimulating and vital, the concept of self-healing is result of analyzing the mutual and vital relationship between human and physical and natural environment in an attempt to understand the relationship and the extent of its repercussions on the physiological and psychological level of the individual. The process of healing&nbsp; cannot be understood by isolation from the factors that work dynamically in the life of individual ,and&nbsp; function of the building is not limited to housing and containment of activities and to meet functions of life, but the most important role is to improve the performance of vital act of&nbsp; life and make it healthy and support self-healing. Hence, the problem of research in the awareness of importance of architecture in taking the task of stimulating self-healing for the individual, and identify characteristics of design approach based on the design processes resulting from the dynamic relationship of the individual's living with the environment. The object of the study is to build a theoretical framework of design recruitment strategies in the process of self-healing of individuals Both for therapeutic environment and general internal environment, and to derive the possible values ​​of the design characteristics that achieve those strategies stemming from the mechanism of involving the individual in a conscious and clear process of support, balance and moral nutrition in relation to the environment. The basic and secondary vocabulary and possible values ​​of the conceptual framework for the strategies of design recruitment in the healing process were three basic strategies: strategy of environment potential supporting of individual, strategy of balancing the life components of the individual and experiment of space transition, and finally the nutrition strategy at the vital and poetic level of individuals. The conclusions were based on objective understanding of the quality of design that supports the process of healing, which is completely different from the concept of design in dealing with static and formal assets. The design here is characterized by the dynamic nature of healthy lifestyle design based on stimulating the process of healing at organic, sensory and moral levels for individuals.</p> Ghada Mohammed Younis ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-01-28 2019-01-28 27 1 63 81 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.1971 Vibration Analysis of Uniform and Tapered Composite Beams with Embedded Shape Memory Alloy https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/1972 <p style="text-align: justify;">In this study, laminated composite materials were hybridized with E-glass fiber and Nitinol (Nickel-Titanium) wires. Hand lay-up technique was used to prepare the samples, epoxy resin type (Sikadur 52 N) was used as matrix reinforced by one fiber from E-glass fiber woven roving with embedded nitinol wires with a diameter 0.5 mm for samples and number of wires such as 0, 1, 3, 5 and 9 to find the effect of the number of wires on the natural frequency. The samples were fixed as a cantilever beam. The effects of increasing the number of nitinol wires, the diameter of nitinol wires, the length of the cantilever beam and the thickness of beam on the natural frequencies of the beam were studied. Also, the effects of the tapered in width side and thickness side on the natural frequencies of cantilever beam were studied. The results showed that the increasing in the number of nitinol wires and the diameter of nitinol wires lead to decrease the natural frequency in martensite phase and increase the natural frequency in austenite phase. Also, the increasing in thickness of beam and width ratio of the beam lead to increase the natural frequency. As well as, the increasing in the thickness ratio leads to increase the first natural frequency and decrease the second and third ones. In addition, the increasing in the length of the beam decreases the natural frequency.</p> Qasim Abbas Atiyah Ammar Saleem Hameed Baqer Jabbar Assi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-01-28 2019-01-28 27 1 82 93 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.1972 The Effecting of Physical Properties of Inorganic Fillers on Swelling Rate of Rubber Compound: A review Study https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/1973 <p style="text-align: justify;">The purpose of preparing the review manuscript is to highlight the importance of the physical specifications of the most important of inorganic fillers such as "carbon black" and "silica" that have good physical specifications as surface area, particle size distribution and surface chemistry. Moreover, study the effect of these specifications on the resistance of vulcanized rubber compound for swelling, which is one of the disadvantages to determine the expansion of its uses in industrial applications through the review of many types of research in this area. The results proved that there is a strong relationship between the curing characteristics of the rubber compound such as the time of curing, the scorch time in addition to the "curing rate index' (CRI) and mechanical properties especially the tensile strength and "density of cross-links" for reducing the swelling rate to the minimum. By increasing the "density of cross-links" and improve the specifications of vulcanization and mechanical specifications.</p> Salih Abbas Habeeb Zoalfokkar Kareem Alobad Muayad Abdulhasan Albozahid ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-01-28 2019-01-28 27 1 94 104 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.1973 The Effect of SiC Addition on AlNi Compact Mechanical Properties Produced Via Powder Metallurgy https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/1974 <p style="text-align: justify;">This research directed to produce Al-Ni alloys by powder metallurgy technique since of its marketable and industrial significant. Nickel and aluminum powders were determined their particle size then the powders mixed and blended with percent (Al - 20% Ni). Silicon carbide particles (SiC) powder supplemented to master alloy powder by percent (4-6- and 8 wt. %) separately then these powders mixed to obtain homogeneous distribution, then the powders compacted in cold pressure at 700 MPa. The sintering procedure was performed at (530°C) for 8 hrs. At vacuum atmosphere (10<sup>-4 </sup>torr). After cooling these samples grinded and polished to estimate microstructure, density, porosity, LOM, SEM, EDS, X-ray diffraction ,hardness and wear tests at dissimilar circumstances. Results showed that the hardness increased by (52%) and wear rate decreased by (55%) at 8 wt % silicon carbide addition, and it was the best results.</p> Ali Hubi Haleem Nawar Fahem Kadhem ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-01-28 2019-01-28 27 1 105 118 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.1974 Effect of Heat and Mechanical Treatments on Mechanical Properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/1975 <p style="text-align: justify;">In this research the effect of various heat treatments on tensile properties and hardness of Aluminum-Zinc-Magnesium-Copper alloy (7075 Aluminum alloy) was studied, with and without mechanical treatment by extrusion process. The 7075 alloy samples were submitted to two type of heat treatments, T6 heat treatment by artificial ageing samples in 120 ºC for 24 h and retrogression and re-ageing (RRA). Where in RRA treatment the first ageing done in 120 ºC for 24 h, then the retrogression done in 180 ºC for 30 min and re-ageing in 120 ºC for 24 h. We got the best results by apply the RRA treatment with extrusion process, where tensile strength was reached to 380 Mpa without extrusion machining process, while reached to 530 Mpa with extrusion process</p> Fouad El Dahiye Mahmoud AlAssaad Mohamad Yehea Alnefawy ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-01-28 2019-01-28 27 1 119 129 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.1975 Energy and Exergy Performance Calculation of Solar Photovoltaic/ Thermal Hybrid System under the Baghdad Environment https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/1976 <p style="text-align: justify;">A combined system with photovoltaic panel modules, which extracts heat from water or air and produces thermal and electrical energy which is called a solar photovoltaic or solar thermal photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) system. A way to enhance the electrical efficiency of the PV module is by diminishing the temperature at which the module is working, i.e. by extracting thermal energy. The design of the solar Photovoltaic/Thermal provides certain advantages. When the temperature is increased 1°C, the photoelectric efficiency decrease by 0.5%. This work is principally aimed to clarify the effectiveness by means of the exergy generated in a PV/T hybrid water module, a photovoltaic thermal module, generating thermal and electrical energy. Were determined the energy, exergy and the efficiency of the power conversion for a certain amount of days in function of the solar intensity, the temperature of the module and environmental temperature. During the hours 9:00 am to 3:00 pm, the efficiencies of exergy and power conversion varies according to the following values, between 2.16 - 12.27% for the exergy efficiency and between 5.2 - 11.2% for the power conversion efficiency as well as, the energy efficiency varies between 6.89 – 14.9%. The temperature of the photovoltaic module has a great impact on the electrical, thermal and exergy efficiencies. Moreover, these efficiencies can be enhanced by removing energy in form of heat from the surface of the photovoltaic module.</p> Dheya Ghanim Mutasher Mohammed Fowzi Mohammed Zaid Salman Obaid ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-01-28 2019-01-28 27 1 130 141 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.1976 Study the Effect of Diameter and Depth of Parabolic Dish Collector on the Concentration Ratio and Temperature Amount of Solar Tower Receiver https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/1977 <p style="text-align: justify;">This work introduces three models of parabolic dish collectors with different dimension to study the effect of change diameter and depth of the dish on the position of focus point and concentration ratio and the temperature of outlet hot water or steam by using different receivers. The present work deals with a new system consists of dish and receiver to produce hot water and steam from solar energy. The parabolic dish solar collector fabricated from iron with different dimension the first model with diameter (82 cm) and depth (6 cm), this gives focus length (70cm) and Concentration ratio (25.6). The second model with a diameter (100cm) and depth (3 cm), this give focus length (208cm) and concentration ratio (15). The third model with a diameter&nbsp; (150cm) and depth (12cm), This give focus length (100cm) and concentration ratio (399) and the front side covered by nickel sheet metal to focus the solar radiation upon the receiver for all models&nbsp; . Three different shapes of receiver tanks used with the third model ; namely case one which used rectangular receiver tank (100×50×5) cm<sup>3</sup> filled with 25 liter of water. Case two used helical copper coil (12.5 mm× 3 m) inside aluminum cylindrical vessel (0.2 m ×0.6 m). Case three used radiator heat exchanger receiver tank (37×47×4) cm<sup>3</sup> filled with 3 liter of water. Use low cost and available materials to manufacture the experimental part. The dish, used as part of the solar reflector, covered by several strips of nickel sheet metal. When the parabolic dish collector was operational, the temperature of water was 60 <sup>o</sup>C in rectangular receiver tank, 75 <sup>0</sup>C within the copper coil and 125 <sup>o</sup>C in radiator device receiver. For rectangular receiver tank, hot water obtained within time (2 h), for copper coil receiver tank, hot water obtained within time (30 min) and for radiator heat exchanger receiver, steam obtained within time (20 min).</p> Sattar Aljabair Laith Jaafer Habeeb Ameer mohammed ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-01-28 2019-01-28 27 1 142 156 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.1977 The Robust Stream Cipher for Securing Data in the Smartphones https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/1981 <p style="text-align: justify;">With the development of network and communication systems in large areas in the world, this leads to increase security problems in transmission of data such as data leakage, modification, unauthorized access, and attacks. There are many types of techniques that are used to prevent these problems and protect data. One of these techniques is a stream cipher which considered the strongest and fastest method used in encryption and decryption process. In this study presented a new design for the stream cipher to protect mobile data. The strength of stream cipher depends on it is' key. There are several methods to generate key. We used three types of generator. Then, it used the combiner to convert them into a nonlinear Boolean function in order to make the generator key more secure. To implement a new generator key by using these three kinds, we used four LFSRs and one of NLFSRs or FCSRs to produce five variables Boolean function. These variables will be as an input to the combiner function. Finally, we tested the generator and submitted it to the randomness tests that is publicly available in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).</p> Abdullah S. Abid Mohammed J. Zaiter Tayseer S. Atia ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-01-31 2019-01-31 27 1 157 210 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.1981 Experimental Study of Forced Convection Heat Transfer Porous Media inside a Rectangular Duct at Entrance Region https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/1991 <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom: 8.0pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: 1.0cm; line-height: normal; direction: ltr; unicode-bidi: embed;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-bidi; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-bidi; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi; mso-bidi-language: AR-IQ;">This work presents experimental investigation of flow and heat transfer characteristics for entry length of turbulent flow in a rectangular duct fitted with porous media and air as the working fluid. Rectangular duct (300<span dir="RTL" lang="AR-IQ">×</span>30 mm) with a hydraulic diameter (54.54 mm) was subjected to constant heat flux from lower surface (</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-bidi; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-bidi; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi; color: black;">1.5 ×10<sup>2</sup> –1.8 ×10<sup>2 </sup>w/m<sup>2</sup></span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-bidi; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-bidi; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi; mso-bidi-language: AR-IQ;">) and Reynolds number ranged (</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-bidi; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-bidi; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi; color: black; mso-themecolor: text1;">3.3x10<sup>4</sup> up to 4.8x10<sup>4</sup></span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; mso-ascii-theme-font: major-bidi; mso-hansi-theme-font: major-bidi; mso-bidi-theme-font: major-bidi; mso-bidi-language: AR-IQ;">). Copper mesh inserts (as porous media) with screen diameter (54.5 mm) for vary distance between two adjacent screens of (10 mm), (15 mm) and (20 mm) in the porosity range of (0.98 - 0.99) are considered for experimentation. The effect of porous height ratio (full and partial) are also considered. It is observed that the enhancement of heat transfer by using mesh inserts when compared to a plain surface is more by a factor of (2.2) times where the skin fraction coefficient is about (5) times. An Empirical correlation for Nusselt number and friction factor are developed for the mesh inserts from the obtained results.</span></p> Moayed R. Hasan Suhad A. Rasheed Ali Najeh Mahdi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 27 1 211 231 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.1991 Effect of Heat Treatment on Properties of Titanium Biomedical Alloy https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/1992 <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of this work to study the effects of heat treatments on the alloy (Ti6Al4V) which produced by powder metallurgy methods and consists of a mixture of the following powders (titanium 90%, aluminum 6%&nbsp; and vanadium 4%).The heat treatments (sintering process) take place in different time of stay. The alloy (Ti6Al4V) used as biomaterials in the medical field due to their&nbsp; excellent properties such as : high corrosion resistance, high wear resistance, high breaking strength, higher ductility, non-toxic and non-magnetic, suitable elasticity coefficient, where&nbsp; used as&nbsp; an alternative to replacing damaged hard tissues such&nbsp; as&nbsp; orthopaedic, osteosynthesis, full hip joint, knee joint and dental implants. The elements were weighed by a highly sensitive electronic balance, the powder was mixed for five hours, Then press with a pressure (700 MPa) to transition to green cylindrical samples with a diameter of 13 mm. The sintering process was carried out at 1100 °C. The porosity of the samples decreases at high temperatures and time of stay to a certain extent and then increase porosity at very high temperatures due to the growth of particle and the expansion of gases. The density of the samples after the sintering process increases with increasing the temperature because increase the mass diffusion of particles and reduces porosities that increase contact points between particles. The sintering processes lead to increase the hardness, where the hardness was tested in the Vickers hardness method. The wear increased by increasing (load, time and sliding distance), and increase the hardness leads to a low volume loss (the amount of metal lost a few) as the relationship between them is inverse. To study the corrosion behavior of the samples that have been sintering processes under different time of stay and to perform this test (tafel Extrapolation test) in 0.9 NaCl solution, where the sample is subjected to high temperature and a long period of stay and therefore This lead to increases the diffusion and increases the contact points between the particles and increase the forces of bonds between the particles and this leads to increased corrosion current and therefore the oxidation process to be a high degree and this leads to the higher rate of corrosion.</p> Jassim M. Salman Al-Murshdy Bassim Jaber Ghayyib ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 27 1 232 246 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.1992 Experimental Investigation of Using PET Wastes as Tension Bars in Reinforced Concrete Beams https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/1993 <p style="text-align: justify;">This research is aimed to study the possibility of recycled the PET wastes by forming the PET wastes as plastic semi-bars and used it as tension bars in simply supported reinforced concrete beams . Twelve beams specimens with dimension of (150*200*1400) mm are casted and tested to monitoring the effecting of these wastes as tension bars on the strengths and serviceability of reinforced concrete beams. The mechanical properties (compressive, splitting tensile and flexural strength) are evaluated in which specimens tested in age of 28 days. The tests results showed that all presented plastic semi-bars are failed except one case in which the deformed steel bar are used with additional layer of PET bottle cut into two parts which showed an increment in ultimate failure load and deflection of&nbsp; 3.03 % and 213.83 % respectively, larger than the reference beam specimens. Negatively effect of PET semi-bar on ultimate load of beams is due to bonding failure between PET bars and surrounding concrete, which made the PET bars as voids or weak region within beam cross section.</p> Abass Oda Dawood Hamsa Mahir Adnan ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 27 1 247 261 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.1993 A Comprehensive Review on Various Estimation Techniques for Multi Input Multi Output Channel https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/1995 <p style="text-align: justify;">The problem of wireless channel estimation has been evolving due to some undesirable effects of channel physical properties on transmitted signals. At the receiver end, distortions, delays, attenuations, interferences, and phase shifts are the most issues encounter together with the received signals. In order to overcome channel effects and provide almost a perfect quality of data transmission, channel parameter estimation is needed. In Multiple Input-Multiple Output systems (MIMO), channel estimation is a more complicated step as compared with the Single Input-Single Output systems, SISO, because of the fact that the number of sub-channels that needs estimate is much greater than SISO systems. The fundamental objective of this research paper is to go over the famous and efficient algorithms that have been innovated to solve the problem of MIMO channel estimation in wireless communication systems. In this paper, these techniques have been classified into three groups: non-blind, semi-blind and blind estimation. For each group, a brief illustration is presented for familiar estimation algorithms. Finally, we compare between these techniques based on computational complexity, latency and estimation accuracy.</p> Awwab Qasim Jumaah Althahab Sameer Abdul Kadhim Alrufaiaat ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 27 1 262 274 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.1995 Modren Patterns of Residential Units and their Impact in Deformation of the Morphoogy of the Rural Settlements in Iraq https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2003 <p style="text-align: justify;">Research work on finding out the role of the existence of houses of new pattern in changing and deforming the morphology of rural statement in the middle region in Iraq. The first stage was to explore the charachteristics of traditional house in Iraqi rural statement and find out the factors that made these charachteristics to make easy make a comparison of new houses with new pattern. A finding result shows up that deformation may occurs in architectural forms in case of the absence of specific beauty elements.&nbsp; To make sure of that ,&nbsp; verbal and written quastionaires were done&nbsp; for selected rural statments houses owners and&nbsp; architecture experts who indicated the presence of big deformation in samples of houses tissue that include both traditional and new pattern &nbsp;together in rural statements.</p> Miged Abbas Abd Al-Naggar Abass Ismael Ibrahim Mahmood Chabuk ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 27 1 275 289 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.2003 Identity and Exchangeable of Figure and Background Visually https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/1996 <p style="text-align: justify;">Studies has focused generally on studying generally and specific researches concepts in architecture, one of these concepts was the identity and the ways that support constructing and specifying the identity concept with in various frames , but it ignore important side which represented by experimenting two points which they are the figure and background visually and the exchangeable connection and the effect of each one of them on the other in forming the general frames to identity in sight of architectural knowledge frame around all identity and its relationships with figure and background visually.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;This paper aims to define the general visions to study the identity concept in general and the effect of figure and background visually and the exchangeable effect between them in constructing the basis of this new identity by specifying the knowledge proposition about the general subject then build a theoretical frame for these concepts and apply it on specific architectural case study representing a practical example of the identity concept in architecture and analyzing the results of about there are approximate in nature and level of results of figure and background visually and its relationship exchangeable with identity.</p> Basim Hasan Hashim Al-Majidi Ahmed Hashim El-Eqapy ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 27 1 290 311 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.1996 Numerical Analysis of Contact Area under Slippage Conditions https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2004 <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;In the present paper, the contact of area, which is produced between a pair of bodies (flat surface and hemi-cylindrical shape), has been studied under the effect of slippage occurrence, where it represents one of the important problems in the mechanical engineering, especially in robotic design. Many parameters have been studied, like frictional forces, equivalent stresses, friction coefficient, and contact area of deformation. The behavior of these parameters has been monitored during the slippage that is generated between the flat surface made from cast alloy steel and the other part made from rubber. The finite element method (FEM) with SOLIDWORKS software was used to simulate this contact area under the slippage effect. The results of the simulation showed a significant behavior, particularly at the beginning of slippage and the stage of (stick-slip) phenomena, in other words, the simulation outputs indicated that the slippage influence has an important behavior, especially when the phenomena of both slippage and stick-slip stage start to occur. These analyses are intended to understand how the contact area affected to design measures to prevent the slippage occurrence and the damage in contacted bodies.</p> Marwah Sabah Fakhri Ihsan A. Baqer ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 27 1 312 323 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.2004 RHLB: Improved Routing Load Balancing Algorithm Based on Hybrid Policy https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2005 <p style="text-align: justify;">A network is defined as a set of nodes that are associated with a way to handle and transfer data and messages from source to destination. The congestion in the network occurs when a lot of traffic occurs, leads to delay, packet loss, bandwidth degradation, and high network overhead. Load balancing algorithms have been designed to reduce congestion in the network. Load Balancing is the redistribution of workload between two or more nodes to be executed at the same time. Two policies of load balancing algorithms: static and dynamic load balancing. This paper proposes a load balancing algorithm based on the hybrid (static and dynamic) policy using Network Simulator (version 2). The hybrid policy is used to improve network performance by redistributing the load between overloaded nodes to other nodes that are under loaded when congestion occurs. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm used performance of the network with regard to throughput, packet delivery ratio, packet loss and the end-to-end delay.</p> Muna Mohammed Jawad Noor Mohammed Mahdi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 27 1 324 337 10.29196/jubes.v27i1.2005 Review on the Mechanisms of Modification Al-Si alloys https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2169 <p style="text-align: justify;">The present paper investigates some mechanisms of modification the eutectic of aluminum-Silicon (Al-Si) alloys. These alloys have been many applications in general industries especially in military, aerospace and automobiles. These alloys in some cases need to modify their properties In particular the wear resistance.&nbsp; This can be overcome by modification the morphology of Si-eutectic. Many mechanisms were suggested in this field. The most common mechanisms are chemical modification and quenching modification. The chemical modification achieved by adding some rare earth elements like sodium (Na), strontium (Sr), and antimony (Sb). Also can be refined the structure of these alloys by using master alloys such as Al-Ti, Al-Ti-B and Al-B.&nbsp; According to restricted growth theory, the impurity induced twinning which reduce the growth. According to the restricted nucleation, the twin plane re-entrant edge (TPRE) Poisoning, which stopped the twin plane. The addition of sodium (Na) in the range of 0.005 to 0.01% modifies the eutectic Si but it has high vapourity and it is difficult to determine its resulting level. Strontium is added in a range of 0.02 to 0.04% but it is ability to oxidation is high as contact with atmosphere.</p> Talib abdulameer Jasim ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 27 1 338 343 Failure of Zoned Earth Dam (An analysis of earth dam break) https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2171 <p style="text-align: justify;">One of the most common type of embankment dam failure is the dam-break due to overtopping. In this study, the finite elements method has been used to analyze seepage and limit equilibrium method to study stability of the body of an earthfill dam during the flood condition. For this purpose, the software Geostudio 2012 is used through its subprograms SEEP/W and SLOPE/W. Al-Adhaim dam in Iraq has been chosen to analysis the 5 days of flood. It was found that the water flux of seepage during the flood reaches about 8.772*10<sup>-5</sup>. m<sup>3</sup>/sec when the water level 146.5 m at 2<sup>nd</sup> day. Seepage through the embankment at maximum water level increased by 55.1 % from maximum water level. It was concluded that the factor of safety against sliding in downstream side decrease with increasing water level and vice versa. It was also concluded that the deposits are getting more critical stability during the conditions of flood when the factor of safety value reaches 1.219 at 2<sup>nd</sup> day.</p> Abdul-Hassan K. Al-Shukur Ranya Badea’ Mahmoud ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 27 1 344 353 Conventional Water Treatment of Domestic Groundwater Supplies https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2173 <p style="text-align: justify;">The important of ground water is increasing in the future as a source of fresh waters; in addition, many countries contain a number of water treatment plants to treat surface water. Using conventional treatment plant in the cities to treat ground water will decrease the cost of ground water treatment and may be help to depend on both surface and ground water supplies. This paper studied the ability of treating ground water by conventional water treatment. The quality of the ground water source is studied in the mention area during study period. The chemical quality of ground water is tested and there is within the standards of drinking water except iron. &nbsp;The conventional treatment was enhancing quality of treated water by increment of dissolved oxygen concentrations toward optimum value. Water treatment plant was effective for removal of iron from ground water of about 50%, in addition there is an effect of conventional treatment on sulfate removal (sulfate may be increase above standards in some ground water sources). The statistical analysis of data shows there is a correlation between quality parameters of raw and treated water and between iron and sulfate of treated water in the correlation matrix. In addition, confidence test was applied on the correlation coefficients using fisher's transformation .The analysis shows, that there is a positive period (0.244, 0.941) of confidence of 95% of correlation factors of iron and sulfate.</p> Hussein Hamid Emran Al-Husseini ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 27 1 354 365 Statistical Modeling for the Characteristics of Open Graded Friction Course Asphalt https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2176 <p style="text-align: justify;">An open-graded friction course (OGFC) is a special type surface layer of traditional Dense Graded Hot Mix Asphalts (DGHMA) pavement that is increasingly being used around the world due to its various benefits, such as, frictional, safety and environmental, etc. In this research, selective laboratory OGFC properties were statistically modeled depends on mix design inputs for two purposes or aims; mix inputs significant and prediction the OGFC properties according mix inputs.&nbsp; Principally, Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS), water sensitivity (TSR), and permeability (K) were selected from mechanical, durability, and volumetric properties, respectively as an output property; they represent the dependent variables for each model. While, fillers as conventional mineral filler or Ordinary Portland Cement (CMF, or OPC), binder content (BC), and polymer content (SBS) are represented inputs or the independent variables for all models. The generated models offered a vital achievable tool for prediction (e.g., their R² are 0.781, 0.82 1and 0.820, respectively, for the mentioned model’s properties), also it helped to scale the significant of each independent variable (e.g., filler type significantly affect water sensitivity properties, its correlation was 0.752). This study reveals that the statistical modeling is achievable and offers a dynamic tool to describe the characteristics and performance of OGFC mixture in term volumetric, mechanical and durability properties.</p> Ola Abbas Al-Jawad Shakir Al-Busaltan ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 27 1 366 381 Developing Laboratory Performance Models for Thin Asphalt Overlay Mixtures https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2186 <p style="text-align: justify;">Statistical modeling is utilized effectively to development relation/s between the dependent variables and independent variables. In other words, it describes how one or more random variables are related to one more other variables. Building verified models can help in predicting performance characteristics, and saving time and money. This study aims to present a statistical models which help to understand the significance of the different parameters in characterizing the performance of the Thin Asphalt Overlay (TAO). The experimental program included: design the thin asphalt overlay mixtures using one gradation type (9.5 Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size NMAS), three filler types (conventional mineral filler, Ordinary Portland Cement, and Quick lime), and five percentages of asphalt content to identify the optimum asphalt content. Then, Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS) modified polymer binder was introduced for performance enhancement. Performance tests were used to evaluate TAO mixture in term of some main namely, volumetric, mechanical, and durability properties are (bulk density, indirect tensile strength and tensile strength ratio). Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) software (Version 24) was used as a tool for models building. To find the most accurate statistical models, linear and nonlinear regression was achieved. This study demonstrates that the using statistical modeling is achievable and offer a vital tool to describe the characteristics and performance of the TAO mixture in term volumetric, mechanical and durability properties.</p> Mousa zeki Shakir Al-Busaltan ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 27 1 382 395 Electrodeposition of Zinc from Galvanized Steel https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2189 <p style="text-align: justify;">In this work, the effect of voltage and concentration on the properties of zinc powder (purity, morphology, and apparent density) that produced by electrodeposition process from industrial waste (galvanized steel) was studied. In Electrodeposition process, used sulfuric acid H₂SO₄ with concentration 0.2M and zinc sulphate heptahydrate ZnSO₄.7H₂O in three different concentrations (100, 75, and 50) M, The time of deposition is 10 mins, three electrodes were used, the distance between electrodes was 3cm for all experiments and the PH of solutions were 0.3, 0.4, 0.6 for three concentrations respectively. The voltages that used were (2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and11) V. First of all, the morphology of zinc powder for all experiments was dendritic. The effect of voltage on the apparent density in ranging was from 1.2 to 0.71 gm. /cm<sup>3</sup> in 100M for voltages from 2V to 11V, it was from 0.94 to0.60 gm. /cm<sup>3</sup> in 75M, and it was from 0.80 to 0.50 gm. /cm<sup>3</sup> in 50M concentration. The purities increased with decrease of zinc ion concentration were (89.51, 92.78, and 95.48) for three different concentrations of same voltage 2V. The highest purity of Zn powder was 95.58 in 6V in 50M concentration.</p> Ruqia Hisham Abd ulster Rabiha Salih Yaseen Firas Farhan Sayyid ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 27 1 394 408 Prevent Intravenous Therapy (IV) Contamination by Addition of Magnesium Oxide Nanoparticles to Silicone Rubber https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2195 <p style="text-align: justify;">Antibacterial material nanocomposites are prepared to manufacture intravenous therapy (IV). These composites prepared by adding Magnesium oxide nano powder (MgO NPs) with a different percent (3, 6, and 9 wt %) to Silicone rubber (SR). The activity of this antibacterial material was inspected against <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>E.coli</em> microorganisms by using Agar Well Diffusion method.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Results showed that the addition of MgO NPs to SiR causes the following enhancement the antibacterial activity against <em>E.coli </em>and <em>S.aureus </em>by 7.1% and 27.1% respectively, increasing tensile strength by 65.5%, increasing the hardness by11.25%, increasing the wear resistance by 84.5%, increasing surface bearing index (Sbi) by 80.5% , increasing in core fluid retention (Sci) by 8.5%,&nbsp; decreasing surface roughness (Sa) by 65%, decreasing core roughness depth (Sk) by 67% and&nbsp; enhancement the wettability by decreases contact angle to minimum value.</p> Auda Jabbar Braihi Jaleel Kareem Ahmed Rami Sattar Jabbar ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 27 1 409 417 Effect of Two Bioformulation Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens with Manure in Controlling Fusarium wilt Disease in Pumpkin https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2205 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This research aimed&nbsp; to isolate and identified the pathogen caused wilt in pumpkin plants and control by two bioformulation &nbsp;<em>Trichoderma harzianum </em>and &nbsp;<em>Pseudomonas fluorescens.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The results revealed&nbsp; that the caused pathogen of pumpkin wilt plants was <em>Fusarium oxysporum&nbsp; </em>which &nbsp;diagnosis has been confirmed by using PCR Technique.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The results&nbsp; of pathogenesity revealed that 60.17% from Plants grown in contaminated soil infected with <em>F. oxysporum</em>. Also the results showed that use the <em>T. harzianum </em>that has high antagonism with pathogen, the degree of antagonism has reached 2 with <em>F. oxysporum </em>at Bell scale<strong>.</strong> <em>P. fluorescens </em>showed inhibition ratio against <em>F. oxysporum and T. harzianum.</em> reached 44 and &nbsp;27% respectively. The results with use antibiosis for <em>T. harzianum </em>, <em>P. fluroescens </em>and manure revealed that the least severity was in the transactions MThPf (manure, fungi and Bacteria), MTh (manure and fungi), ThPf (fungi and bacteria), Th (<em>T. harzianum</em>), Pf (<em>P. fluorescens</em>), MPf (manure and bacteria), where ranged 0 - 5.56% , which did not differ significantly between them compared to M (manure) and control that reached 13.69% and 22.22% respectively<strong>. </strong>Weight in soil contaminated with pathogen in MThPf and ThPf that reached 376.83 and 379.22gr compard with control in the same soil when reached 66.41 gr .The results of the analysis with used GCMas revealed transactions in presence of Antibiotics and substances Phenol 2,5-bis (1,1-dimethyl), 4-Fluorobenzyl alcohol, Hexadecanoic acid (2) -methyl ester, 1-Pyrrolidine butanoic acid, gamma-Tocophenol and 9-Octanoic acid (2) -2-hydrox.</p> Dhia S. Al–Waily Sabreen M. Hassan ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-02-11 2019-02-11 27 1 446 456