Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities 2020-11-28T17:28:51+00:00 Info. Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>ournal of <strong>U</strong>niversity of <strong>B</strong>abylon for <strong>H</strong>umanities, (<span style="color: #ff6600;"><strong>JUBH</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBH</strong> is a Humanities peer-reviewed open access journal monthly publishing high-quality research and papers at the lead of recent research describing significant developments in Human Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>ISSN:&nbsp;<a title="ISSN:&nbsp;2617-0906" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2617-0906</a></strong></span></p> Identity Conflict in the Iraqi Novel: The Novel of "The American Granddaughter" as an Exemplar 2020-11-26T16:45:33+00:00 Zeena Hamza Shakir <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study is formed during the course of our work in monitoring the manifestations of the fragmentation of identity in its Iraqi space through investigating the qualitative characteristics of literary discourse, which are suitable to constitute a technical phenomenon.The study yielded the following results:</p> <p>1- Novel writing possessed in its direct contents a political vision of the events, dealing with the position of women within the political movement that has afflicted the Iraqi person</p> <p>2-The schism of the feminist narrative personality between reality and the mirror in her life and self-performance, as the feminist narrative text stopped to monitor the manifestations of the fragmentation of the national identity, and presented the most important changes that affected the identity as a result of the conditions of war, political and sectarian conflicts, terrorism and exile.</p> <p><br>4-The performances of the body in the narrative text have varied between action and response. The body in feminist writing is D. My image in the form that splits into various meanings between subjective and objective according to the social space itself.3-The feminist narrative text has its poeticism in terms of drawing epithets with Iraqi anthropological and popular references by which the self-reinforced its longing and nostalgia to the past by employing legacies, traditions and foods represented by the characteristics of the place and part of its cultural geography.</p> 2020-11-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Urban Grow thin the City of Najaf Al - Ashraf (Center): Vision and Solutions for the Period 2017-2027 According to Urban Land Use Criteria 2020-11-28T17:28:51+00:00 Hassan J. Hamem Sadia K. Hasan Ameer M. Jabbar <p>The urban population is one of the main reasons for the increase in urban area, this will lead to a change in urban land use functions. Planning connects between population growth and urban growth and both will lead to desirable urban growth within the master plan, however, lack of planning leads to undesirable urban growth outside the scope of the master plan. The growing gap between urban growth and population growth will produce the undesirable change in urban functions, such as unsustainable and non-standard urban land use. The aim of this research is to create a positive and balanced positive effect between urban growth and population growth under the influence of the sustainable urban criterion and a functional distribution of the various urban land uses. The equation of simple population growth and the sustainable urban standard and the descriptive historical approach used to link urban growth with population growth, through the accurate forecast of the population is using the population growth equation for years to come may reach ten years. Urban population is distributed on the basis of the uses of urban land, which are balanced by the criteria of using local or regional urban land that respond to the social, economic and cultural situation of the population. The most important conclusion is that the year 2017 recorded a large gap between the inhabited and uninhabited land in favor of uninhabited land, that there are large areas have not been used and expand to future potentialgrowth. However, this gap does not give us the green light, it means the urban planning is not sure responds to the requirements of population growth, especially there are the problem of housing, health, electricity, water, transport, noise and environmental pollution suffer from most developing countries and Iraq is no exception.</p> 2020-11-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon The Importance of Traffic Education in Reducing Traffic Accidents 2020-11-28T06:11:49+00:00 Hayit Boutvenuchat Fatima Masani <p>Traffic accidents are among the leading causes of death in the world in general and developing countries in particular. Algeria is among one of these developing countries that suffer from the gravity of traffic accidents, and the statistics of the National Center for Road Safety and Prevention have good evidence for this, as 3,639 deaths were recorded in 2017 due to traffic accidents and 3,310 other deaths in 2018, not to mention the number of wounded and other cases that suffered from motor disability and physical handicap as a result.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Studies have confirmed that the human factor is the main cause of these accidents, so it may depend on the driver's behavior primarily and the degree of his awareness. This will only come through traffic education, spreading traffic culture in society, carrying out awareness and awareness campaigns, and ensuring a good training, which would raise the level of driver knowledge and responsibility while using the vehicle.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In this regard, we will try to focus on the importance of traffic education and raise the traffic awareness of the driver, the impact of this on the phenomenon of traffic accidents in Algeria with some studies on this matter.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Haidar Hadi Khalalkhal 2020-11-28T06:30:40+00:00 Haidar Hadi Khalalkhal <p>This research aims to elucidate the aesthetic aspects of the Qur’anic expressions inSurat Al-Naas. This is done by explaining the forms of linguistic sophistication in the usage of speech sounds to reach the aim of attracting the receivers’ attention. It, then, studies the morphological formulas the Qur’anic text depends onin preferring the choice of one word over another with reference to all the sentences connotations and the grammatical structures on which the Surah is based. The study shows the different linguistic and rhetoric touches of the Qur’anic text in a textual analytical manner to explain the close relation of formulating the phrases, selecting the vocabulary and choosing the compositions in this educational Qur’anic discourse that is rich with meanings and deep in its connotations despite the short overall construction of its verses.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Some Features of the Islamic Faith in Surat Al-Baqara 2020-11-28T07:11:48+00:00 Rajaa Abbas Muhammad <p>Holy Qur’an has many goals including monotheism, rulings and ethics, along with stories. All these objectives are presented in the Holy Qur’an in its various surahs.In this research, we have tried to find out some of the doctrinal objectives of Surat al-Baqara, as the noble surah includes the main objectives of Islam and its basic faculties.In it the establishment of evidence that the Qur’an is a book of guidance to be followed in every case, and the greatest guiding principle to faith in the unseen, and it showed that the correct belief is the basis for building in any curriculum that establishes the basic pillars of the education of the Muslim.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon The Applicable Law from the Jury at the International Contracts 2020-11-28T07:24:16+00:00 Raghad Abdul Amir Mazloum <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; Arbitration is the most important means used by dealers in the field of international contracts to resolve their differences arising from their dealings, as we find most international contracts are not without the condition of arbitration to be followed when a dispute related to the issue of contract implementation occurs as international contracts differ from internal contracts for internal dealings. In contract to international contracts for international relations that are often tainted with a foreign component. The laws of those countries differ in dealing with the case that are brought up according to the legal systems of each country, while at the international level we find the rules of arbitration followed in international contracts, they have become the original judiciary to resolve these disputes.</p> <p>Arbitration is a unique method in the field of dispute settlement, as the arbitration board can agree on the procedures for free arbitration and its duration, as well as defining the rules that can be followed by the arbitration board, meaning that the arbitration system is based on the will of the parties, and the arbitration panels will in certain cases.</p> <p>International arbitration in international contracts may provoke a conflict between laws, unlike internal arbitration that is subject to the internal laws of each country. The multiplicity of laws requires defining the applicable law from among these multiple laws, which is in line with the nature of international contracts and the applicable law is the law that the arbitration board reaches as it is more appropriate to apply it to the dispute before it. The role of the arbitration board in choosing the application law is highlighted specifically in the absence of the parties will for the law application to the dispute subject to arbitration, since international arbitration in international contracts it can only take place if there is a previous agreement between the parties to resolve the existing dispute between them or the future. In the absence of such an agreement, the role of the arbitral tribunal in sitting the dispute is highlighted here, and then the applicable law is specified.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Difficulties Faced by Art Education Teachers in the Secondary Stage as Identified by the Teachers Themselves: The General Directorate for Education in Babil Governorate as a Model 2020-11-28T08:03:28+00:00 Awni Hadi Al-Rubaie <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; The current research is concerned with studying the difficulties of teaching art education at the secondary level from the point of view of male and female teachers. It is located in four chapters. The first chapter devoted the methodological framework to the research, as its problem came, “the difficulties that teachers face in secondary education from the teachers' and female teachers’ point of view.” The aim of the research was to identify the difficulties of teaching art education at the secondary level from the point of view of male and female teachers. The research is determined in time for the academic year 2016-2017 AD, and spatially for middle and middle schools in Babil Governorate, and the chapter includes a definition of linguistic terms and idiomatic and procedural definition. As for the second chapter, it included the theoretical framework for the research, which contained three topics, the first: the general and specific objectives of art education, the second: the content of the art education teacher’s guide, and the third: the methods of teaching art education. In the third chapter, the research procedures in which a description of his sample, tool and method are mentioned, the researcher followed the descriptive method using the survey method, with the aim of reaching accurate results and an attempt to achieve the research objectives by obtaining the required information, data and facts, formulating, analyzing and interpreting them in the descriptive method, and then drawing conclusions.</p> <p>&nbsp; The research concluded with solutions and obstacles to the difficulties from the point of view of the research sample and according to the fields of the questionnaire, and as follows (first: the scope of the objectives of teaching art education, second: the content area of ​​the art education teacher guide, third: the field of teaching methods of art education, fourth: the field of training, Fifthly Sixth: the field of the art education room, the number and the tools, and the assessment field).</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; In light of the research results, the researcher concluded the following:</p> <p>1.There are difficulties in all areas of the questionnaire and for most of its paragraphs, with a degree of severity (2.25) i.e. (75%)</p> <p>2.There is similarity and agreement in the viewpoint of art education teachers in most of the paragraphs in the fields of the questionnaire.</p> <p>3.The majority of art education teachers follow traditional teaching methods and lack training.</p> <p>And then the recommendations and proposals, and this chapter included some proposals and a list of sources, references and appendices.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon The Concept of Love between Philosophy and Sufism in the Arab Theater 2020-11-28T08:19:55+00:00 Ghosoon Mohammed Abdul Muttalib Al-Obaidi Abbas Hkem Hussein Al-Jubouri <p>The concepts of love in human life vary among all the subjects including the characteristics of love, its tools, and related concepts, whether this is spiritual, Sufi, or realistic, between the lover and his beloved. The research contains four sections: section one presents the methodological framework, the research problem which rests on: “What are the intellectual and spiritual principles of the concept of love in the Arabic theatrical text?” While the importance of the research lies in establishing the foundations, values ​​and philosophy of the concept of love in the Arab theatrical text. The research aims to identify the philosophy of love behaviorally and spiritually in the body of the Arab theatrical text. As for the limits, a decade from (1995-1998) for three different countries is chosen. Section two includes two subsections related to the indicators of the theoretical framework, the first of which is love in the divine religions, while the second deals with the love in philosophy and mysticism according to Al-Ghazali, Ibn Arabi and Ibn Hazm. Section Three includes the research community which is chosen intentionally in accordance with the topic of the research. The research adopts the descriptive and analytical approach as a research methodology and is based on the indicators of the theoretical framework as a tool for the research to analyze the sample and arrives at the research results. Section four tackles the playwright's use of prose used for understanding and communicating behavioral and realistic love and sometimes poetic language is also used for Sufi spiritual dialogue.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon The Grammatical Poetic Evidence in Al-Aqlid Sharh Al-Mufassalby Taj Al-Din Al-Jundi (died 700 H): Nouns as a Model 2020-11-28T09:09:29+00:00 Ali Abdulfata Hmuhee Haider Abdulkade <p>The main objective of this study is to explain the grammatical poetic evidence in the Book of <em>Al-AqlidSharh Al-Mufassal </em>and: how AL_Jundi used it in dealing with grammatical issues establishing or violating a grammatical judgment since the poetic evidence is considered as the grammatical authority for Arabic after the Qur<sup>’</sup>anic evidence in building the grammatical rules. Besides, poetry for Arabs is esteemed as one of the most prominent audible sources approved in documenting grammar. AL_Jundi relied on poetry a lot in his opinions and his support for the views of those who preceded him, and it is for this reason that his book is full of poetic evidence.</p> <p>The studied data is divided into three sections: the first is the grammatical poetic evidence in the “marfoiat”; the second in the “mansobat”; and the third in the “majrorat”. One of the most important results of the research is familiarizing the reader with the views of the AL_Jundi and the ancients and their treatment of grammatical rulings by inferring a reference from the sources of hearing, which is the poetic evidence, in addition to the fact that the sum of these opinions is not free of acceptance and response according to the requirements of sober scientific research.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Exegesis Landmarks by Imam Al-Hassan (peace be upon him): An Analytical Study 2020-11-28T09:26:05+00:00 Khalid Obayes Mohsin <p>This study tries to find out the scientific impact of the Imam Al-Hassan in the interpretation of the Holy Qur’an. It is divided into an introduction and two main sections. The first is about the linguistic and idiomatic definitions of each of the landmarks and interpretation, and the second is about the interpretive narrations (hadiths), and these narrations sometimes relate to the interpretation of a verse.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon The Effectiveness of the Graphic Art in Designing, and Marketing Children's Books 2020-11-28T14:27:02+00:00 Rasha Shafi Abdel-Sadah Mona Kathim Hashim <p>The study (The Effectiveness of Graphic Art on Designing and Marketing Children's Books) aims to identify the ideas, visions, methods, and graphic programs for designing children's book covers in (Iraq-Egypt), starting from designing and ending with the cover print, since the design process for children's book covers is not limited to the immediate production idea. Represented by placing the design idea on its own in isolation from the operational method that we reached for the final output of the publication.</p> <p>1- Design ideas and methods according to the type of book:</p> <p>A- Knowledge. B - educational. C- Commercial.</p> <p>2- Modern graphic techniques for the programs used for closed designs for children's books.</p> <p>3- a- adobe photoshop b- illustrator c- in design</p> <p>4- The age group of the children.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ((3-6))</p> <p>5- Binding techniques and types of material:</p> <p>A - Carton paper. B- Corrugated cardboard.</p> <p>As the print material has an important role in showing and highlighting a side or a section that the designer deems necessary to bring out the advertising and promotional idea that the cover mainly targets, and since the cover is the first visual message aimed at attracting the recipient and drawing his attention, designers have been concerned with using the typographical elements of the cover to convey the idea in many Sometimes through two messages, the first is a text represented by the title of the book, and the second is graphic, which is reflected in what the book is looking for in its folds.</p> <p>The art of graphic design is considered one of the important visual communication arts, which is considered effective and vital in various areas of life in the modern world, where the child depends when choosing a book on the design elements used that ultimately affect the design and attract the child and make him love this book in particular to buy, and from here we can To say that children's books are a silent seller who markets themselves by integrating design elements to achieve the attraction of children.</p> <p>The research study also dealt with four chapters. The first chapter dealt with the problem, purpose, importance, limits and methodology, and the second chapter dealt with two topics. The research, and the fourth chapter deals with the analysis of models for children's book covers, the results, conclusions, recommendations and proposals.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Norms of Obtaining Intellectual Security in the Verses of the Holy Quran 2020-11-28T14:34:25+00:00 Mohummed Talib Madlool Suadad Hamzah Hammadi <p>One of the modern concepts that has been carefully studied is the concept of intellectual security. There is no doubt that the concepts are emerging and crystallizing due to the great need for them in the social milieu.This research presents the concept of intellectual security from the viewpoint of scholars and researchers, then refers to the foundations or controls established by the Holy Qur’an, which are considered divine rooting for this concept, which has great importance in the development of humanity and societies at all levels.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon The Influence of Reality TV Shows on Societal Values, An Experimental Study on Iraqi University Students: “The Shock” Showas an Exemplar 2020-11-28T14:58:39+00:00 Ali Mawlood Fadhil <p>The study aimed to measure the impact of reality shows on societal values, <em>The Shock</em> “Al-Sadma” <em>Show</em> as a model. The study is applied to a sample of (64) Iraqi university students, based on the theory of cultural implementation, as well as the experimental method was used in the study was the tribal and dimensional measurement of two groups (experimental, controlled), comparing the two groups which containing female and male and equal numbers for both genders. The study concluded that the "suffering" variable was at the forefront of the societal values of the searched as a result of exposure to the "Al-Sadma show", followed by "positive participation" and then "emotional attention" "feelings towards others", then "emotional contagion" and finally "response to crying". The study revealed the impact of exposure to the show "Al-Sadma" on societal values (suffering, emotional contagion, positive participation, response to crying, emotional attention, feelings towards others) to the research sample participates.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon The Effect of the Radical Agents on the Dual Theatrical Discourse and Ideological Media in Iraq 2020-11-28T16:37:59+00:00 Qusay Shafeeq Tawfiq <p>The theatrical and journalistic discourse went in history through ideological shifts that came due to the tools of the traditional discourse directed with the possession of the capitalist authorities that would establish official and public press means. Reviving social security and honesty of information and news, radicalization comes in terms of the deviation of opinion, in line with ideologies directed to serve the agendas of the press that ride the space of incitement, especially in light of political hegemony and political censorship. Overdrive is a theatrical show, a dualism that works to revive the show as a social phenomenon against reactionary that dominates the minds of societies. However, the media is a very important role in producing social awareness and creating spiritual communication with the contents of the news and between the audience who listens or reads the news of the hour to achieve a kind of keeping pace with events Local and global, and because the media is the only tributary in the news with information and figures, this has contributed to feeding societies with information that stimulates public opinion and develops the spirit of liberation through the information movement that makes the opinion and the other opinion and informs the objectivity of events, it has contributed in a way Financial and cultural achievement in the anti-deduced from distortion, lies and rumor psychological warfare if the state of the play, which carry the same</p> <p>&nbsp;formats and labels directed.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Developing Human Resources and its Role in Societal Security: An Analytical Study 2020-11-28T16:53:51+00:00 Watheq Jaafar Karim <p>This research aims to explain the role of human capital development in enhancing social security and reducing the causes of social insecurity, including the spread of ignorance, poverty, unemployment, family disintegration and political neglect. Additionally, it aims to define the term social security, its means and its components. The country's strength and status are measured by the extent of its culture and knowledge. There is an inverse relationship between the development of the country and the development of its human resources. The more the society has more knowledge, culture and awareness, the more it is developed and the more it is reflected in security and social order. In addition, education is one of the most important elements that instill and moral values ​​in society. The research has reached a number of results, the most important of which are:</p> <ol> <li class="show">The development of human capital is one of the best sectors that the State is trying to promote because of its importance and role in the provision of public and security services, especially that which is inexhaustible and thus the capacity and security of the society are closely linked to the extent of the culture of its members.</li> <li class="show">Education plays a key role in the development of human capital by instilling positive social values in society and thus creating a generation more educated and aware of the needs of society and to meet those needs to the fullest.</li> <li class="show">The mosque is one of the most important institutions in the society as a center to guide and guide individuals and make them able to establish moral values and renounce violence and urge cooperation and harmony among members of society and this is reflected positively on security in society.</li> </ol> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Mind and its Role in Understanding the Quranic Text 2020-11-28T17:02:09+00:00 Mohammed Jaber Alwan <p>One of the most prominent Islamic eras is the era in which ancient philosophies attempted the analysis of the Qur’an text. Perhaps it is important to mention that the interpretation of the Holy Qur’an includes the interpretation of the interpreter philosophically, since some Muslim philosophers have reflected their philosophies on the interpretation of the Holy Qur’an. The philosophical dimension is clear on some of the commentators’ narratives, and the truth is that they were influenced by the Qur’an and its contents, and they drew from here and celebrated from there with their philosophical culture, especially after the emergence of translation. We feel that the Holy Qur’an has left its impact on Islamic philosophy through its symbols who conveyed to the world the vision of the Qur’an in existence.</p> 2020-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon