Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>ournal of <strong>U</strong>niversity of <strong>B</strong>abylon for <strong>H</strong>umanities, (<span style="color: #ff6600;"><strong>JUBH</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBH</strong> is a Humanities peer-reviewed open access journal monthly publishing high-quality research and papers at the lead of recent research describing significant developments in Human Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>ISSN:&nbsp;<a title="ISSN:&nbsp;2617-0906" href="https://extranet.issn.org/resource/issn/2617-0906" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2617-0906</a></strong></span></p> University of Babylon en-US Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities 2617-0906 The Issue of Loyality in the Iraqi Society إشكالية الولاء في المجتمع العراقي https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2705 <p>Iraqi society suffers in the last period of the state of divisions and fragmentation of partisan, sectarian, national, religious, regional and tribal unprecedented in any previous stage of modern history, what are the reasons for this fragmentation and fragmentation of the Iraqi national identity? Is it in the political successions on the government of Iraq, which has devoted the loyalties and quality of its members, or as a result of partisan, national, and sectarian education that tends to achieve interests on the basis of quotas without taking into account the dangers that could result from them! The research is of great importance to try to find ways to address the causes and circumstances of diversity in loyalty as obstacles to the establishment of an Iraqi civil society far from extremism and Hyperbole.</p> <p>Identify the nature of loyalty in Iraqi It aims to know the factors that cause diversity It aims to know the factors that cause diversity</p> <p>This research is a library research based on monitoring the scientific literature related to the research topic or problem.</p> Ammar Saleem Abd Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 1 15 To: (Satan and the Soul) (Whispers):The Attribution of the Verb and its Transgression in the Holy Quran إسناد الفعل وَسوَسَ إلى:(الشيطان والنفس) وتعديته بالحروف في القرآن الكريم https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2706 <p>Praise be to God who created different tongues made it a verse of his verses, and made the Arabic language for the sake of his book was sent to the good of his creation to warn them, addressed them a speech they understand and help, and can not come like himThe Holy Quran is a book of wondrous structure coherent elements, each term in which the purpose of the purpose, it is not a word but a subject for the purpose of achieving the achievement, and may not be clear differences between words only after reflection, and the Koran came in a manner not&nbsp;</p> <p>reach his place except God Almighty Knowledge and knowledge of secrets and facts, which brings him to his point and minutes.</p> <p>I have sought to elicit some of his words, to clarify the aspects of linguistic and stylistic wisdom. The choice was made on some of the words that were given to the term "the devil and the soul" and found the verb (woss); and the breadth of its significance, came the title: (attribution of the verb: (Wesus) to the devil and the soul and its transgression in the Holy Quran) The research was composed of four demands as follows.</p> <p>The first requirement: the meaning of the verb (wos) and its derivative and sound level.</p> <p>The second requirement: the meaning of the words: (Satan and the soul).</p> <p>Third requirement: the verbality of the verb (Wosus) with the two trajectories of the traction (not and to).</p> <p>the third requirement: the verbality of the verb (Woss) Baharvi Traction (Ala and in).</p> <p>The conclusion includes the most important results of the research, and then a list of sources and mirrors</p> Driss Hamad Hadi Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 16 30 A Critical Pragmatic Approach to the Folklore Literary Text المقاربة النقدية التداولية للنص الأدبي التراثي (المقامة القريضية لبديع الزمان الهمذاني نموذجا). https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2707 <p>A deliberative aooroach is a methodology that explore the several determinants of linguistic circulation, and the ovarall relations batween the speakes and everyone involved in the linguistic communication, the circumstances and the infeluences surrounding the speech situation; and its significance through the context of "Hadith" (verabal theory). The study of the method or the manner in which present an essue and have the signiicance moves from the explicit to the implicit level " conversational theory and the theory of argu;ents ; in addition to the theory of linguistic verbs stated by Oxford’s philosophers, which is the essence of the whole theory; we have to be contented in this intervention because of the conditional size in this meeting. The aim o the literary discourse is to show mutual interaction between the two sides of the discourse, and that speech based on the dialogue as it is</p> Dalal Ouachen Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-29 2019-12-29 31 38 Conquering and its Repercussions in the Characters of Fathia Al-Assal Play القهر وانعكاساته في شخصيات فتحية العسال المسرحية https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2711 <p>The research aims to study the nature of the oppression and its repercussions in the characters of Fathia al-Assal, its characteristics and the nature of its behavior. The research included four chapters. The first chapter included the research problem that focused on the following question (what is the oppression and its implications in the characters of Fathia al-Assal theatrical), and the importance of research attributed to the need to study the oppression and its implications in the characters of Fathia al-Assal) The intellectual references to oppression and the state of its occupation, and the need for it stems from the fact that this research will benefit the technical and humanitarian specialists and theatrical field of writers, technicians, students and specialists, and identify the objective that focuses on the identification of oppression and its implications in the personalities of FathiaAssal play) The second chapter (the theoretical framework) has been corrupted from two sections, as well as the indicators that resulted from the theoretical framework, And previous studies. The researcher dealt with the first topic: the concept of psychological, social and political oppression and how to do that concept and what mechanisms to help in activating it. The second section dealt with the effectiveness of (oppression) in Arab feminist theatrical discourse. The researcher dealt with the third topic: (Fathia al-Assal). In the previous studies, the researcher did not find a previous study on the concept of</p> Saad Ali Naji Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 39 57 The Study of Pleonasm in Some Selected Texts of Shakespeare's Drama: Julius Caesar https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2713 <p>Pleonasm is the use of more words rather than necessary or it is the repetition of the same words for emphasizing.Pleonasm can be viewed as a repetition of words in order to reinforce the idea for understanding because in most cases there is misunderstanding, mishearing or there is unknown and misfound a mean of communication.<strong>e.g. Muna sees the beautiful view with her eyes</strong> .So ,in this sentencethe superfluous phrase is (with her eyes )because it repeats the idea of (seeing).</p> <p>It is hypothesized that the increasing of using the pleonasm expressions is just a superficially whereas the words ,phrases and the additional sentences are not a useless according to aforementioned.</p> <p>The aim behind using pleonasm is the emphasis about something that the speaker wants to shed lights on it.The present study proposes the following hypothesis :Pleonasm in English has two types: syntactic and semantic and each one has its own sub-types.</p> <p>The study ends up with the conclusion that pleonasmis sometimes used.pleonasm is used&nbsp; unconsciously by the speaker because he is backed to his style of speaking.</p> Rusul Dawood Salman Al-Nasrawi Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 58 68 The Image of Marshes in the Iraqi Contemporary Paintings صورة الاهوار في الرسم العراقي المعاصر https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2715 <p>The research is based on the study of the concept of marshes in contemporary Iraqi painting. The researcher presented in the first lobe the problem of research. The environment of the marshes represented a visual field rich in vocabulary, shapes, symbols and different images of life to produce plastic works in which organisms, water and birds interact with humans. The transformation element in the outside world from the environment, place, environment and social phenomena and ask questions how the image of the marshes in Iraqi art has produced the image of the marshes environment and place a change and privacy in Iraqi art and then reached the goal of research to identify the image of the marshes in Iraqi Art. The second</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="520"> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities (JUBH)<strong>&nbsp;</strong>by University of Babylon is licensed under a</p> <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> &nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>The research is based on the study of the concept of marshes in contemporary Iraqi painting. The researcher presented in the first lobe the problem of research. The environment of the marshes represented a visual field rich in vocabulary, shapes, symbols and different images of life to produce plastic works in which organisms, water and birds interact with humans. The transformation element in the outside world from the environment, place, environment and social phenomena and ask questions how the image of the marshes in Iraqi art has produced the image of the marshes environment and place a change and privacy in Iraqi art and then reached the goal of research to identify the image of the marshes in Iraqi Art. The second is the theoretical framework of the research and its division into two parts. The first is the concept of the picture and the other features the image of the marshes in the Iraqi art. The researcher follows the technical experiments that worked on the environment of the marshes and enriched the stylistic diversity in them after the third chapter and analyzed five samples. In the fourth chapter, the researcher reached the results, including - for the imagined place influenced by the artist's consciousness interacting with the image of the marshes, it is an important and influential aspect of the method of its aesthetic work in the construction of creative work taken from the marshes and their diverse environments and their heritage an important source in the search for privacy and uniqueness, It presents the image of the marshes, the difference of the artist, including the fishermen, peasants and people, and the focus on the color and rhythm harmonious, and there are the wording of the vocabulary of architectural spaces and mud houses, boats and birds, and thus the image of the rich marshes contributed rich artistic methods that combine the Impressionism and Show him drawing visible representative, then reached conclusions, of which the artist deals with the place and the environment and the ocean through intuitive interaction so that intuition activity and effectiveness of a product of human images as a fruit of emotions and emotions thanks to the images turn out to be aware of aesthetic expression. The contemporary artist moves from the realization of the place to the formation of perception, the artist sees the image of the world that is trying to frame, to become the world embodied in an effort to understand and awareness of things, then the researcher made recommendations and suggestions.</p> Aref Waheed Ibrahim Mustafa Sahib Abbas Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 69 87 10.29196/jubh.v27i6.2715 The Rhythm of the Body in the Iraqi Feminist Novel Novel of Silence of Elham Abdel Karim is a Model ايقاع الجسد في الرواية النسوية العراقية رواية الصمت لـ الهام عبد الكريم انموذجا https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2717 <p>1- There are stylistic and conceptual loads of language from the dialogue and description of the narrative of women themselves and hinted the narrative to the emergence of new terms that represented a particular linguistic structure in its composition</p> <p>2- The narrative in the feminist narrative presented treatments for the status of women in their various life roles (childhood, adolescence, youth) and the accompanying ideological and social changes</p> <p>3- The body's performances in the narrative body varied between the action and the response and the acts of the violation of the body between the verbal and verbal symbolic violence. Hence, the body in the feminist writing is a form of dictaphysical form that divides into various indications, between subjective and objective according to the social space itself</p> <p>4- The poetry of the narrative was accompanied by traits with dimensions of (revelation and microphones in dealing with the self and</p> <p>with the otherman, power)&nbsp;</p> <p>5- Openness of the text to infinity to be in front of a meaningful question, but that the answers themselves overlap with the questions so as to make it difficult for the recipient to differentiate between the answer and the question, which means diverting the course of writing from the private to the public in the waving to direct attention to the concerns of contemporary human and fateful issues</p> <p>6- The narrative text employed an aesthetic disadvantage for many margins of places and things according to the character of the character and its psychological situation</p> <p>7- The body has its voice as part of the language of silence in the novel and in parallel with the title of the body to coincide with the social silence.</p> Zena Hamza Shakir Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 88 94 Rajab al-Bursi al-Hili between mystery and hyperbole رجب البرسي الحلّي بين الغموض والغلو https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2718 <p>Al-Persi is one of the eighth and ninth century AH scholars. He was one of the scholars who were marginalized in the history books and the translations of men. No elders, pupils, vacations, or scientific trips were mentioned. No date or place of death was mentioned for sure. Research to remove some ambiguity about them and collect his scientific works to highlight the reason for the dispute over the personality of Persi and not the purpose of the research to issue judgments.</p> Ama'l Adnan Ahmed Zainab Fadhil Mirgan Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 95 109 The Crime of Harboring a Terrorist (A Comparative Study) جريمة إيواء ارهابي (دراسة مقارنة) https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2719 <p>The crime of harboring a terrorist &nbsp;is one of the crimes issued by the Iraqi legislator with crimes harmful to the public interest in articles (199 and 273) of the Iraqi Penal Code. The Iraqi legislator has set a penalty commensurate with this crime. At the time the Iraqi legislator, in Penal Code No. 111 of 1969, But this crime has begun to spread in recent times because of the spread of extremist ideas and terrorism, and with the spread of this crime extensively recently, the Iraqi legislator intervened to put an end to the spread punishable by the (article 4, paragraph 2) of the anti-terrorism law No. (13) For the year 2005, and concentrated the problem of research in the text (Article 2, paragraph 2) of the Anti-Terrorism Law did not refer to the issue of exemption from the crime in relation to the wife's lodging of her terrorist husband, his assets, his branches, his sister and his brother, since the legislator in the law Based on this, we discussed this crime in addition to the Iraqi criminal legislation in the Egyptian Penal Code. We divided the research into three sections. The first topic is the concept of the crime of harboring the terrorist and eating. In a second section harboring terrorist elements of the crime and the third section Fajssnah for the punishment of harboring terrorist.</p> Muna Abdalaly Musa Nafei takleef Majeed Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 110 124 Appearance and Invisibility in Quranic Colleges الظهور والخفاء في الكليات القرآنية https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2720 <p>The topic (appearance and concealment in the Koranic faculties) is the cornerstone in the detection of vocabulary and vocalizations of the Koranic evidence and Emirates as well as the context and clues internal and external comes from the importance of this topic of being the basis of the construction of the Koran as the words are distributed between the appearance of the Koran and between the apparent and hidden and between clear and hidden&nbsp; , The study is an objective study with the application of an explanatory side for the benefit and benefit, the research has been held on two subjects, the first topic: the emergence and concealment in the nodal faculties The first demand includes: nodal faculties, the second demand: the fundamentals of nodal faculties, the&nbsp; Search II: procedural applications for the emergence and rough in colleges Streptococcus, together with the introduction and preparation at the beginning of the research and the conclusion of the most important results of the study.</p> Zahraa Qahtan Ayed Al-Salami Fadel Abdul-Abbas Al-Naimi Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 125 138 The Role of Intuitive Introductions in the Contemporary Plastic Discourse and its Implications for the Creative Process (Conceptual Art) as a Model دور المقدمات الحدسية في الخطاب التشكيلي المعاصر وانعكاساتها على العملية الابداعية (الفن ألمفاهيمي) أنموذ https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2721 <p>This research (What is the role of intuitive introductions in contemporary plastic discourse and its implications for the creative process) included four chapters the first one to expian the folloing : the research's&nbsp; problem through the folloing requires&nbsp; What is the role of intuitive introductions in contemporary plastic discourse and its implications for the creative process?- - The importance of the current research by Philosophical linkage between the subject of knowledge and the study of value and the attempt to create aesthetic aesthetic intuition.- The current research aims to identify To identify the role of intuitive introductions in contemporary plastic discourse and its implications for the creative process.-&nbsp;&nbsp; Limitations of Research: The thematic works of conceptual art and collectivism</p> <p>Temporal: from 1960 the first beginnings of postmodern art - 2010 Contemporary Art</p> <p>Spatial countries of Europe and America are the main polarizers of these arts.</p> <p>-&nbsp; The second chapter It included three axes: - Intuitive queens - Intuitive thinking styles and their relationship to art - Intuitive relationship to creativity The researcher tried in these axes to focus on the importance of mastery after learning and its relation to intuition.</p> <p>- While The third chapter touched on the search procedures . And finally The fourth chapter included the results and conclusions with discussed than the recommendations and proposals.</p> Abbas Turky Mohessin Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 139 155 Social Phenomenain in Quran الظاهرة الاجتماعية في القرآن https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2722 <p class="1" style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: 36.0pt; line-height: normal; background: transparent;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman'; color: black;">In conclusion, the koran is a book to organize the social presence of the human being on the earth it is a method and guide to guide man to the horizons of piety. He created for her the rights of obedience to God, His unification and the acknowledgment of His servitude.Thecosial phenomenon has influenced the meeting because it affects the situation in which the society can be describad and its lifestyle . The social phenomenon is defined as the general rules and trends that are takenin the society as the basis of organizing the collective life, and coording the relations between the members of this society and linking them together, ©ther research and consideration of the importance of the importance of the subject and its scientific value and humanitarian research came social phenomena of the koran has included the definition of the concept of social phenomenon in sociology and reference to its characteristics such as automatic as automatic , algebraic and general and being external and then addressed the phenomenon of social reading ass the koran carries a reform project to save humanity from the organizations to the light and analysis of the injutice that live under it and then refer to the social phenomenon of the koran which the koran described as negative ,a phenomenon of idolatry And the phenomenon of nomadism and tribal nervousness and the phenomenon of social culture and double personality and then the phenomenon of scramble and conflity and wars and the phenomenon of disbelief behavioral tyraanny and then inertia and antiquity and superstition .</span></p> Nathim Jawad Kathim Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 Hedging in Interview Questions as a Politeness Strategy https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2724 <p>This research aims at analyzing the phenomenon of hedging used in interview questions. Generally speaking, hedging is one of the most important techniques in speaking by which utterances sound more tactful and, thus, accepted by the addressees. The object of this paper is to investigate hedges in three interviews with some public figures (Queen Rania, Giorgio Armani, and Prince William). In doing so, the modal of hedges taxonomy has been adopted in classifying hedges. It is suggested that modal auxiliary verbs are the widely used hedging device by interviewers as it is a perfect tool for showing politeness. For modal auxiliary verbs are thought to be an indirect way of expressing thoughts and opinions, and hence work as dual protection for both faces of the speaker and that of the addressee as well.</p> <p>The present study is divided into two parts: part one includes the concept of hedging and its types in addition some related issues like, politeness and interview questions, whereas the second part embraces the methodology, data analysis and results. It is found that modal auxiliary verbs are used abundantly as a basic hedge type in asking questions during interviews</p> Estabraq R. Almusaway Hussein. D. Al-Hassnawi Maarif J. Thamir Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 198 219 Pictorial Diversity in Contemporary Ceramic Formations Babylonian Potters as a Model التنوع الصوري في التكوينات الخزفية المعاصرة الخزافون البابليون أنموذجاً https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2725 <p>In the current research, the visual diversity of the contemporary ceramic formations, Babylonian pottery, is a model. We have dealt with their experience as a technical trend in contemporary ceramics for the period after 2003. And follow the paths of youth in the province of Babylon and in Iraq in general. In the research and investigation of the origins and sources and characteristics of the diversity of the image of the adult pioneers and their artistic gatherings, and their impact on contemporary Iraqi ceramics in successive generations, starting with the generation of pioneers and then the generation of the sixties and seventies up to the current generation in the eighties and the end of the nineties and beyond 2003, History of the plastic movement in Iraq. By analyzing the ceramic works of Babylon artists, private collections, private exhibition halls, sources, photographs, exhibitions and interviews conducted by the researcher.</p> <p>The researcher identified the problem of his research with the following questions:</p> <p>- Establishment of Iraqi ceramics in its general form and the Babylonian plastic movement and its origin in particular?</p> <p>The study aimed at identifying the visual diversity in the contemporary ceramic formations of the artists of Babylon in the field of ceramic art as it is necessary for this pristine research of contemporary plastic arts studies and the discovery of the development of plastic arts in Iraq and also revealing the skills and creativity of the Babylonian artist Contemporary</p> <p>&nbsp;The boundaries of the research were represented by the spatial boundaries (Iraq), with its temporal boundaries for the period (2003 - 2018) within the substantive limits that include contemporary ceramic works produced and exhibited in Iraq, and others, which included (art galleries, public collections, museums, , Magazines and newspapers(.</p> <p>The second part deals with the concept of image in philosophical and monetary thought, while the third section includes the technical treatments for the formation of contemporary Iraqi ceramics, while the researcher discussed in Chapter III Research procedures, the research community, and his eye and analysis. In the fourth chapter, the results of the research, and its conclusions, were the most important: Most of the ceramic products carried the visual diversity in the contemporary ceramic formations of the artists of Babylon, which is always renewed. The nature of diversity expressed a well-engineered system, adopting the image as a variety of identity and revealing its heritage, heritage, traditions and customs. As a result of the heavy accumulation of knowledge, civilization, culture and civilization, the picture was used with other cultures. The contemporary Babylonian caterer employed the image as a means of expression and the wishes of society.</p> <p>Finally, there were recommendations, proposals, a list of Arab and foreign sources, and supplements containing summaries of the views of the research community and the summary in English.</p> Iman Khazeal Eabbas Maeruf Salah Karim Obeid Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 175 197 Visual and Intellectual Approaches in Contemporary Iraqi Ceramics المقاربات البصرية والفكرية في الخزف العراقي المعاصر https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2726 <p>There are many terms that deal with literature and art, especially the term approach or method and technique and despite the convergence of these terms, but there are differences in meaning, we found that the term approach is closely linked to the terms of our way and technically, but the difference in the term approach that it means different theories related to the subject and nature The approach of this approach is the process of extracting the general idea or the significance that can be discovered between the plastic and the format. The current research problem has determined that the arts in all societies of the world are related to aesthetics, Rabat is the relationship based on the quest to serve people in different aspects of life The development of art in all its areas on the development of human paper, which means that art is directly linked to the stages of the evolution of human life, even if we live the lives of communities, we found that it has been associated with a large part of them The life of man to ease his shoulders The importance of research has emerged in the fact that the basic criterion, as is common in the development of complexes, is the advancement of its arts and literature, The objective of the research was to identify visual approaches and intellectual approaches in contemporary Iraqi ceramics. The second chapter is organized by two sections. The first topic includes the concept of visual and intellectual approaches The second topic includes contemporary Iraqi art, theoretical framework indicators and previous studies It is theoretical framework indicators 1 - The simplest concept of approaches is the process of extracting the idea and applied in concrete practical way, any conversion to optical and that is the approach between visual and intellectual 2 - The idea is a mental work related to thinking and from the imagination When the artist seeks to approach a certain idea of ​​reality, it arrives in a straight line while thinking and visualizing what visual and visual embodiment and whenever the visual approach is explained intellectual, the work will become more aesthetic in the eyes of the recipient The third chapter came through the research procedures including the research community, the research sample, the research method, the research tool and the analysis of the samples The research community has selected 20 different works of the artists (Angham Al Saadoun, Saad Shaker, Maher Al Samarrai, Turki Hussain, Raad Al Dulaimi). The fourth chapter has conclusions, conclusions, recommendations, proposals and results 1 - Contemporary ceramics in general adopted the inspiration of the heritage in some aspects We have found that there is an employment of the historical and cultural aspects in the work of most contemporary ceramics, especially Iraqi cottons And proposals Current research suggests optical approaches to the treasury of arrows Musawi.</p> Husam Sabah Jurad Salah Karim Obeid Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 198 219 Cleansed by Sarah Kane as a Typical Model for Oppression in the Modern Age https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2727 <p>تعد الكاتبة المسرحية ساره كين واحده من اهم كتاب المسرح الحديث حيث انتقدت مسرحياتها بشدة بسبب احتوائها عل مشاهد العنف .حيث تميزت&nbsp; مسرحيتها (التطهير) بالعديد من المشاهد الصادمة والتي تكون فيها مشاعر الظلم والغضب هي المسطيرة على سلوك الشخوص ممايؤدي الى مشاهد مناقضة للطبيعة البشرية.</p> Zahraa Adnan Baqer Lina Muhssen Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 220 227 Aesthetics of the Employment of Rafidain Myths in the Works of (Mahmoud Ajami) جماليات توظيف الأساطير الرافدينية في أعمال (محمود عجمي) https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2730 <p>The performances of plastic arts are constantly open to the new and unexpected, and due to the development that has taken place, the field of mythology has become a forum for intellectual and intellectual creations of artists. The problem of the current research in the following question: How did the legend embodied its intellectual depth of civilization -the old Iraqi- in the work of the contemporary Iraqi artist ((Mahmood Ajami))? Which aims to: Identify the aesthetics of the employment of Mesopotamian myths in the work (Mahmood Ajami), and within the temporal limits: 1986-2017. The second dealt with two topics: the first concerned with (Rafidain mythology), and the second dealt with: the employment of the Rafidain myth in contemporary Iraqi art. The third was determined by the research procedures (the research community and its sample of (5) models, analyzed according to the descriptive approach). Finally, chapter IV deals with findings, conclusions, recommendations and proposals.</p> <p>One of the most important results: A trend in the incarnation tended towards pure abstraction in the work of the artist, based on the theme of myth in the work, which dealt with the forms of women and bull, illustrated by the model(3). The research ended with the most important sources and references.</p> Salwa Mohsen Hamid Al-Taie Alaa Rasheed Razuki Al-Khafaji Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 228 249 Iraq's Withdrawal from the Baghdad Pact in 1959, an Analytical Study of Al-Thawra al-Baghdadiya Newspaper انسحاب العراق من حلف بغداد عام 1959دراسة تحليلية لجريدة الثورة البغدادية https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2731 <p>The withdrawal of Iraq from Baghdad pact dealt a deadly blow at the colonial presence and its military bases in AL- Habbaniyah, and Baghdad, which were abase to attaclc all liberation movements in Arab region . also it restricted all the&nbsp; patriotic parties and movement&nbsp; in Iraq while they were calling to liberate it politically and economically .Abdul Ellah and Nuri al-Said played an important role in defending colonialism and its survival.</p> <p>Al-Thawra newspaper followed all the achievements of the of July 1958&nbsp; revolution&nbsp; on all levels, political, economic and social, especially Iraq withdrawal from the sterling block and relieving Iraqi dinar from&nbsp; the Britain dependency .colonial pacts such as the Baghdad pact, the Hashemite Union. Also the economic withdrawal of Iraq from the region of and the liberation of the.is also dealt with in the newspaper.</p> <p>Al-Thawra newspaper continued to publish the people's demands of Abdul Karim Qasim to withdraw from all the&nbsp; international treaties, especially Baghdad treaty, till Iraq finally withdrawn on the 24th of March 1959.</p> Saleh Abbas Nasir Al-Tae Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 Show Aesthetics in Hideaki Miyamura Ceramics جماليات الإظهار في خزفيات هيدياكي ميامورا https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2732 <p>Formation plays a vital role in the creative and creative process, especially in the art of ceramics. This represents modern trends in the twentieth century, with artistic achievements that transcended traditional contexts, to new and strange horizons. In order to achieve the new structure or structures in ceramics by performing a new form of diversity according to the levels of the response of the potter to the scientific progress and the technological revolution and its investment, or in the expression of the loss of its changing and changing psychology, new and unique and strange, Or instinct.</p> <p>Our current research reflects the reflection of contemporary Japanese ceramics in its general form, the experience of the masterpiece Hideaki Miramura and the references and techniques of the show in his ceramic works, which constituted a new opening towards a vision that contributed to the crystallization and reading of the intellectual transformations in contemporary ceramic art. Visual</p> <p>The researcher identified the problem of his research with the following questions:</p> <p>- What transformations have occurred in the formation of contemporary Japanese ceramics in general and the works of the Heidaki Meyer potter specifically?</p> <p>The study aimed at revealing the aesthetics of the show in the ceramics of the artist Hideaki Mayamore.</p> <p>And the discovery of the role of raw material and the experience of the Japanese potter and the transformations of the formation in contemporary Japanese ceramics.</p> <p>&nbsp;The boundaries of research were represented by spatial boundaries (Japan), while its temporal boundaries for the period 2017-2010 were within the substantive limits of the contemporary ceramic works produced and exhibited in that country, among others (art galleries, public collections, museums, Electronic, magazines, newspapers and the Japanese Embassy in Baghdad</p> <p>The second chapter deals with three aspects. The researcher dealt with the first topic: The aesthetics of showing in ceramics. The second topic is based on Japanese contemporary ceramics. The third section includes the experience of the potter Heidikeki Miyamura. The references and techniques of showing in ceramic work. In the third chapter, the researcher discussed the research procedures, Search, sample and analyze. In the fourth chapter, the results of the research, and its conclusions, were the most important: Most of the Japanese ceramic products of Heidiki carried the composition of a universal feature, the aesthetic, the diversity of the material, an aesthetic feature of the modern composite ceramic works of the artist Heikki Mimar, coordination, harmony, contrast and gradation The study of colors is an aesthetic feature of many of the ceramic products of the Japanese potter Hayayaki. The color unit in some of these products, combining the environmental, natural and cultural factor with the geometrical factor, or framing the shape within a technical school system, is considered to be the first-class and distinctive aesthetic feature. The space interaction between the interior space of the composite ceramic work and its surrounding space It is an aesthetic characteristic of kinetic dynamics. The technical diversity in the formulation of the composite ceramic work enriches this achievement in form, size and texture, and is an innovative and aesthetic feature.Finally, there were recommendations, proposals, a list of Arab and foreign sources, and supplements containing summaries of the views of the research community and the summary in English.</p> Diaa Hassan Mahmoud Salah Mahdiun Hamza Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 269 289 The Intellectual Dimensions of the Contradiction and their Representations in Pop Art الأبعاد الفكرية للتناقض وتمثلاتها في الفن الشعبي (Pop Art) https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2733 <p>The present research deals with the study of (the intellectual dimensions of the contradiction and their representations in pop art) and includes four chapters, the chapter one dealt with the research problem, which was centered on the following question (What are the intellectual dimensions of the contradiction and how was represented in the pop art?), Chapter one also included the importance of research and the need for it, its purpose and limits and determine the terms contained in<strong>.</strong></p> <p>Wherease the second chapter included two subjects, the first concerned with the conceptual contradiction study. In the second section, the two researchers reviewed pop art, and the second chapter ended with the indicators that the researchers concluded. The third chapter includes the research procedures represented by the research community and the research sample which reached (2) a technical model as well as the research methodology, and it is The third chapter ended with the analysis of the research sample.</p> <p>The fourth chapter is concerned with the results of the research, its conclusions, recommendations and proposals.</p> <p>Highlights of the research results were:</p> <p>- Contradiction is a humanness&nbsp; behavior that constitutes a natural reaction against the pressure of environmental influences in which he lives, then established in his mind, and became a cognitive activity has been translated into aesthetic artistic language circulating in most peoples and communities according to the value of the aesthetic discourse.</p> <p>-For the contradiction, there are several intellectual dimensions have been emerged. The cognitive dimensions, which were represented in all the sample of the research through approaches to cognitive forces denies one of the prohibitions of the other through the investment of the popular artist data of popular culture of model, images, advertisements and others invested to declare his contradiction with the elitist culture and to emphasize the effectiveness of the micro-class in society, and the possibility of cultural naturalization, which results in aesthetic dialogue puts a hand on the failures of contemporary life and develop solutions to them without the replacement of those theoretical solutions, which were cast into&nbsp; ready perfect templates&nbsp; do not suit with the various layers of society.</p> <p>The main conclusions include:</p> <p>-The contradiction has its secretions &amp; connections that are, which have seemed to be active in the pop arts. This indicates it ability to violate the standards and usual aesthetic data, and the mechanisms of reading, receiving and approaching to the essence of humanness&nbsp; life by making it an objective subject.</p> Mohammed Muhsin Kareem Fatima Latif Abdullah Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 290 309 Methods of Expiration of the General Loan Contract طرق سداد عقد القرض العام https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2734 <p>In this research, we discussed the ways of ending the general loan contract, one of the most important administrative contracts, with its economic nature, and it represents one of the most important imports of the state, especially in times of crisis and abnormal conditions that afflict the state and the financial burden that burdens the state treasury. And we find that the ways of its expiration are divided between two ways, one of which leads to the completion of the full is the fulfillment, consumption, waiver, and denial. And a way of mitigating it, by reducing the amount of interest paid by the State as a result of the loan, such as conversion and funding.</p> Kadhim Khudhair Al Suwaidi Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 310 319 Aspects of Intuitive Inference on the Paintings of Teenagers Female مظاهر الاستدلال الحدسي في رسوم المراهقات https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2735 <p>The current&nbsp; research entitled with ( <strong><em>Aspects of Intuitive Inference on the paintings of Teenagersfemale</em></strong>)consist of four chapters, first one includes ( Methodical frame of research), the aim of research was: Discovering the Aspects of intuitive inference in peculiarities of teenagers' paintings by verifying the validity of the following zero hypothesis:</p> <ul> <li>There is no evidence of intuitive inference in peculiarities of teenagers' paintingsfemale at level of (0.05) and this hypothesis branches to nine zero-hypotheses.</li> </ul> <p>The researcher used the depictive method to study the comparison sample to achieve this aim, the research was limited to teenagersfemale of 5<sup>th</sup> preparatory class in preparatory and secondary schools in the center of city for academic year of ( 2019-2020) , research sample was (133) of&nbsp; female , the sample was chosen by cluster random way.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><u>The research required using the two following tools</u></strong><strong>:</strong></p> <p><strong>First:</strong> Investigation the intuitive inference: the researcher relied on using the intuitive inference prepared by ( Alrawaf-2008) which includes (66) item, (20) items were for verbal side, (46) items were for scientific side, the researcher has verify it's credibility by two methods:</p> <ul> <li>Virtual credibility methods: By showing the test (with primary form) in front of arbitrators committee and using Coper equation, the rate of arbitrators agreement was (89.88%)</li> <li>Terminal comparison method: The researcher used the recognizing force equation for each item of the test's items and she ruled out every item with recognizing force less than (19%) and lesser, they are four: (39), (40), (41), (35B), hence the number of items were (64) item, (20) items of the were (theoretical) and (42) items of them were practical.</li> </ul> <p>In order to verify the constancy of the test, the researcher used the half defragment, correlation factor between the two halves was (76.49) by using (Pearson correlation factor) and by using (Spearman Brown Equation) the constancy factor was (0.68).</p> <p>&nbsp;Then the researcher has applied the test over the research sample and determined two recognizing groups, one with a high intuitive inference has (49) individuals and the other of low intuitive inference of ( 49) individuals.</p> <p><strong>Second:</strong> A tool to analyze teenagers' paintings : After briefing paintings' analyzing tools from previous studies, she casted a special forms of (100) items in primary status.</p> <p>To investigate validity of tools, the form was shown to (21) arbitrators are experts of painting, artistic education and psychology, then she modify, omit and add up to their advices to let the tool consists of (118), agreement rate of experts was (79.24) by using Coper equation.</p> <p>For the consistency of tool, she picked up three samples of paintings randomly and asked external analyzers to analyze paintings separately, then she analyzed the samples twice consequently as period of (14) days between the two analyses to determine the harmony of the researcher with herself through time and then determine the agreement coefficient by using Scott equation to be (90%).</p> <p>After accomplishing of the tool, she used analyzing paintings of the two samples high and low of (94) paintings and extract times of recurrent and percentages of two groups' peculiarities and by using (Z value) to compare between paintings' peculiarities for both groups high and low, it produced the following results:</p> <ul> <li>There is obvious effect of intuitive inference over teenagers'<strong><em> female</em></strong> paintings peculiarities as the teenagers<strong><em> female</em></strong> of high intuitive inference had different painting's peculiarities from their colleagues paintings' peculiarities with low intuitive inference. Hence the researcher rejected zero hypotheses of research and adopted the alternative hypotheses.</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kadhim Murshid Tharb Marwaa Yaqzan Ghania Alhabib Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 320 341 Urbanization and its Impact on Social Relations Between Ethnic Groups Analytical Social Study التحضر وانعكاساته على العلاقات الاجتماعية بين الجماعات العرقية دراسة اجتماعيه تحليلية https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2737 <p>The interest in the study of urbanization, its factors and its effects is one of the most influential international phenomena in the transformation of social relations in all its forms and systems. It is a phenomenon that has imposed itself on human societies since the city became a social and cultural entity that plays a controller-social role simultaneously.</p> <p>&nbsp;The urbanization of a global nature is different in its impact on the nature of social relations from one society to another, and its existence witnessed in the social life of the city, which is based on rational behavior and material calculations and transcend natural loyalties, creating problems of the urban environment such as ecological problems (place), competition and conflict</p> Nadim Jawad Kazem Abbas Najah Mohammed Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2020-01-24 2020-01-24 342 352 The Negative Effects of Changing the Mathematics Curriculum from Teachers Point View"" الاثار السلبية لتغيير منهاج الرياضيات للمرحلة الابتدائية من وجهة نظر معلمات الرياضيات https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2739 <p>Research Summary The current research aims at identifying the negative effects of changing the mathematics curriculum for the elementary stage from the point of view of the mathematics teachers. The researcher used the descriptive approach to suit the nature of the research objective. In order to achieve this, the researcher prepared a questionnaire consisting of three fields and five paragraphs for each field. Thus, the total number of paragraphs (15) was verified by presenting it to specialists in the field of psychological and educational sciences. And its paragraphs were designed so that the answer by choosing one of the two alternatives ( agree-disagree) and distributed in final form on the sample of the research, which was selected randomly (50 teachers) of mathematics teachers in the center of the province of Babylon for the academic year 2018-2019, and after the statistical analysis of the test paragraphs. The researcher used the statistical analysis program SPSS and the results showed that there is a set of negative effects to change the mathematics curriculum. In light of the results of the research, the researcher recommended the need to review by the Iraqi curriculum developers of the curriculum of the primary stage mathematics and the need to take the views of mathematics teachers to improve the content of the mathematics curriculum.</p> Abtihal Asmar Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 353 364 Substantive Criminal Protection of the Assets and Equipment of the Internal Security Forces الحماية الجزائية الموضوعية للموجودات والتجهيزات الخاصة بقوى الامن الداخلي - دراسة مقارنة- https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2740 <p>Penal protection of assets and equipment means that the criminal legislator seeks to protect the interests and rights of society and to deter anyone who assaults them on the basis of that criminalization. Any act committed against government materials, whether such assault causes loss or destruction, as it is necessary to maintain government funds in the ISF facility. It is necessary to ensure that it proceeds steadily and regularly and thus the public should undertake the task of this protection through the development of legal provisions criminalizing the assault that obtains assets and equipment belonging to the internal security forces and the appropriate punishment for these crimes, which affect government money allocated to the security forces. To achieve public benefit and contribute to strengthening the role of the security man in the performance of his job by strengthening his role to maintain internal security, because otherwise would lead to the destabilization of confidence between the members of the security services and the consequent danger and damage at the same time to public order in general and the security institution in particular, The Penal Code of the Internal Security Forces No. (14) of 2008, amended for the first time after the change of government in 2003 to address a large and important segment in order to achieve the highest levels of control and combat financial</p> <p>corruption, which does not regulate the internal curriculum of this special category of society, so came the importance of these Study as a guarantee It is certain to protect the public right and the police.</p> Hason obed hajej Raafat Kazom Bazon Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 365 392 The Arrangement of Recuperation in the Novel of Tashari for(Aniamkeja) نسق الاسترجاع في رواية (طشاري) لـ(أنعام كجه جي) https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2741 <p>It consider that it is important component featured in the provision&nbsp; phonograph about sentence from many questions and attension in order to become alms and to be more effect in the moleculars in the literature act . The narrative romancer take care of the period ( time ) component in order to understand it and clarify the limit distinction each one about the another.</p> <p>Person clung in time ( period ) since antiquity and he lived the trepidation premonition and sufferance then he became under the fact of time and essence , after that take place the reviewers attention than they became seeing for it important in the narrative field, delimit, stamg basically for it in the story – writer act, it consider that it is soul for it…</p> <p><br>It the text story- writer ( tashary ) who wrote in Iraqs<sup>,</sup> hands who ingenioused ( Aniamkeja ) who created in the novel blokes that considered it rourded about the hero ( Dr. Wardia ) with her memories&nbsp; diluted, sorrow, pain and Iraqi tradition in all details " says vogue, nouns, vocabulary local " and ability to find connections era uneven between the past associated with present time who is disconnected to tomorrow specific between returning and unreturning, between cultural rubble attempt to hang on with it, outflow, stampede in order to save the grace of life.</p> Difaf Adnan Ismael Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 393 399 Features of Globalization in Contemporary Iraqi Plastic ملامح العولمة في التشكيلي العراقي المعاصر https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2742 <p>The study aimed at identifying the features of globalization in the contemporary Iraqi formation</p> <p>Or the work of modern Iraqi formation.</p> <p>The boundaries of the research were represented by the spatial boundaries (Iraq) with the extension of its temporal boundaries for the period</p> <p>(1990 – 2019) &nbsp;within the substantive limits that include contemporary Iraqi art produced and exhibited and others, which included (art exhibitions, public holdings, museums, electronic information network, newspapers magazines)</p> <p>In the modern Iraqi formation, the development of science and technology and modern discoveries contributed to the production of the art of formation. The postmodern composition represented a field for the testing of ready-made materials and raw materials in order to search for the creation of different forms of plasticity. Iraqi production.</p> <p><br>&nbsp;Finally, the recommendations and proposals and the list of Arab and foreign sources and annexes containing the totals of the</p> <p>perspectives of the research community and the summary in English.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Eali Eatiat Musaa Mustafa Sahib Abbas Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 400 422 The Manifestations of Quranic Interrelationship in Modern Palestinian Poetry تجليات التناص القرآني في الشعر الفلسطيني الحديث https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2743 <p>This research deals with the manifestations of Quranic interrelationship in modern Palestinian poetry from the light of the national poetic effects of the Palestinian poets؛The Qur'anic verses related to religious stories are read in their poems, and their texts are read in the Quranic verses with their stories, meanings and interpretations, through the quotation of some verses of the Qur'an, to show the strength of their influence in the purposeful struggle.The Quranic discourse, in its internal and external form, has been used in literary works. The Quranic discourse has an aesthetic moral purpose. The Palestinian poetic discourse has invoked the sanctity of the Holy Qur'an as a literary source.The Palestinian poets have taken from the Quranic texts and the stories of the Prophets, such as the story of Joseph and Moses, peace be upon them, and the role played by children, stones and the abelian to express the bitter bitterness and suffering of their people and the resistance of the occupying enemy.</p> Mahdl Yaqub Farhani Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 423 436 The Fifth Ecumenical Council the Second Ecumenical Constantinople Council (553 A.D.) المجمع المسكوني الخامس مجمع القسطنطينية المسكوني الثاني 553م https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2749 <p>The Ecumenical Councils are considered one of the most prominent landmarks of European history in the Middle Ages, especially in the religious aspect, because they discussed very important issues related to the Christian Belief in addition to dealing with religious views and novel things which appeared in the religious area. One of these councils is the second Constantinople (553 A.D.) which was held in the early days&nbsp; Emperor Justinian (527-565 A. D.) reign.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>This council considered a number of theological views widespread in that era namely the works of &nbsp;(Origen) and ( Theodor von Mopsuestia),and (Theodoret von Cyrus) and(Ibae - Al-Rahawi) .</p> <p>&nbsp;besides a number of other religious matters. The paper discusses in detail this council starting from revealing the Byzantium Empire internal conditions in its eastern aspect briefly and concisely through discussing the direct and indirect reasons of the Council session, its place, the Popes attending, sessions events, to agenda, decisions and meeting conclusions. Finally the paper ends with a conclusion summarizing the results of the research.</p> Ra’id Raheem Kudhair Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 437 463