Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>ournal of <strong>U</strong>niversity of <strong>B</strong>abylon for <strong>H</strong>umanities, (<span style="color: #ff6600;"><strong>JUBH</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBH</strong> is a Humanities peer-reviewed open access journal monthly publishing high-quality research and papers at the lead of recent research describing significant developments in Human Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>ISSN:&nbsp;<a title="ISSN:&nbsp;2617-0906" href="https://extranet.issn.org/resource/issn/2617-0906" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2617-0906</a></strong></span></p> University of Babylon en-US Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities 2617-0906 Table of Contents Vol. 29/ No. 2/ 2021 https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3444 <p>Table of Contents 2021</p> Alyaa jabbar Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-02-25 2021-02-25 29 2 1 8 The Degree of Future Thinking for the Students of the Educational Open College https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3426 <p>The current research aims to find out the degree to which students of the Educational Open College in Iraq possess future thinking skills. The research is based on the descriptive survey approach and it develops a measure of future thinking consisting of (23) items divided into four main skills: the skill of future planning, the skill of solving future problems, the skill of future imagination, and the skill of future expectation, and the research sample consists of (144) students in the center of Babylon Governorate who have been chosen By using the stratified random sample method, and by using the weighted arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and (T) test for two independent samples, the following results emerged: The degree of students of the Educational Open College having the skills of future thinking is high in my skills (future planning and solving future problems) and medium for my skills: (Future Imagination skill And the future expectation), and the results showed that there is no statistically significant function at the function level (0.05) in the sex and specialization variables, and the presence of a statistically significant difference at the level of (0.05) in the years of service variable in favor of those who have service in teaching more than ten years.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ahmed Saleh Nehaba Ahmed Hamzah Abbood Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-02-22 2021-02-22 29 2 1 18 Sebwayh’s Morphological Effect in “The Proof in Qur’anic Sciences” by Zarkashi (died 794 Hijri) https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3428 <p>The research aims to explain the effect of Sebwayh in the book “The Proof in Qur’anic Sciences” by Zarkashi on the morphological level, and the extent of this effect in terms of consensus or the method of analysis that Zarkashi adopts in explaining the appropriate formula through this analysis. By Sibawayh from some linguists from other than the aforementioned world, and the research is also not devoid of reference to an indication of the semantic effect of changing the morphological structure and the amount of positions with which Zarkashi agrees with Sibawayh. Sibawayh is a starting point and anchored to prove the validity of morphological structures, the extent to which they were adopted as textualization and the results he reached from the analysis. The second is represented by the signature phenomenon that characterized the proof in taking Sibawayh's views.</p> Ali Shaker Jawad Al-Mihna Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-02-22 2021-02-22 29 2 19 28 The Pragmatics of Sarcasm in Selected American Political TV Shows https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3429 <p>This study is an attempt to study sarcasm in three US political television programs, namely: The Daily Show with Trevor Noh, Last Week, Tonight with John Oliver, and The National Stance with Hassan Minhaj. This study is an attempt to develop a paradigm for the deliberative analysis of sarcasm. This study attempts to achieve the following objectives: (1) To investigate the types of speech acts through which sarcasm occurs (2) to determine the deliberative formulas of sarcasm (3) to trace the deliberative method used by the presenters of American political programs through the principles of politeness and cooperation and (4) to investigate the deliberative functions of ridicule. The study assumes: (1) that there are specific verbs through which sarcasm is used in American political programs, on top of which is criticism of the other and the claim, (2) that there is a limited set of deliberative formulas through which sarcasm is used, on top of which is hypothetical and deceitful&nbsp; sarcasm, (3) The principles of politeness and cooperation are likely to be violated in most cases where sarcasm is used and (4) that sarcasm is often used for the purpose of providing humor and assessing political situations. In order to prove the reliability of these hypotheses and to achieve the main objectives, the study followed the following procedures: (1) Presenting a literature review on sarcasm and other related terms such as sarcasm in light of its use (2) Using the model developed by the study to analyze work data (3) Analyzing situations in which sarcasm is used The three that represent the current study data and (4) the use of a statistical calculation method, represented by the ratio equation. And the research reached to prove the first, third and fourth hypothesis, while the third hypothesis was relatively rejected.</p> Hameed Hassoun Al-Mas’udi Ahmed Mukheef Hussein Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-02-22 2021-02-22 29 2 29 43 The Arabic Theatrical Text in the Sixties https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3430 <p class="ListParagraph" style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: 27.0pt; line-height: normal; direction: ltr; unicode-bidi: embed;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman';">The study deals with the theatrical texts through which some playwrights expressed the bitter and inhuman reality of the Arab nation through their theatrical texts indicating their protest, rebellion and rejection of the inhuman reality that the Arab nation is experiencing in the sixties, which witnessed social and political events and transformations that helped to strengthen the national trend after it reached its climax. In that period, the setback of June (1967) was the most push for this trend in poetic, prose, artistic and theatrical creativity. The theoretical framework consists of two topics. The first one deals with the impact of the June setback on the Arab theater, and the second one deals with the sociology of Arab theater. The procedures included the research community of (13) an Arab theatrical text by the Syrian playwright (Saadallah Wanous) for the period of time (1961-1969) and the analysis of the sample embodied in the theatrical text (The Elephant, King of Time) in (1969). Among the most important results of the research (1) The Arab theater in the 1960s has become an expression of the tragedy of the contemporary man in the twentieth century, a man of fear, hunger, anxiety and surrender, a man of emptiness, pain and loss (2) The Arab playwright expresses the concerns of his people and their suffering, as he speaks in the name of the people honestly, and documents The suffering of the Arab peoples in general, not the suffering of a specific people, and (3) the 1960s is the foundation stage at all levels.</span></p> Wsn Abed Al Ameer Hussein Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 29 2 44 67 Geographical Analysis of Traffic Accidents in the Middle Euphrates Region https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3431 <p>Traffic accidents are an important topic as a result of the victims and deaths they leave behind, and the purpose of finding out the causes of accidents is to develop the necessary solutions and proposals that will help in reducing their occurrence. The research includes analyzing data for the Ministry of Planning, the Directorate of Transport and Communications Statistics for the year 2018, which indicate the occurrence of (3867) traffic accidents in the Middle Euphrates region, and Najaf Governorate recorded the highest percentage of the total traffic accidents in the study area with a percentage (26.9%). Collision accidents recorded the highest percentage (52.2%) of the total traffic accidents, followed by run-over accidents (37%) and then capsizing (9%). The research found that a large percentage of these accidents are mainly caused by the driver, with a percentage (80%) of the total traffic accidents. The number of deaths resulting from traffic accidents for the whole of the study area for the year 2018 reached (886) deaths and the male mortality rate was the highest (78.6%), while the female death rate reached (21.3%), and the number of injured reached (4263) injured.</p> Samah Ibrahim Shamkhi Afrah Ibrahim Shamkhi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 29 2 68 84 Feminist Criticism and its Representations in the Iraqi Theatrical Text: “Sabaya Baghdad” as an Exemplar https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3432 <p>The study deals with feminist criticism and its representations in the Iraqi theatrical text, and it uses the play "Sabaya Baghdad" as a model for such works. The research problem is represented in asking how feminist criticism emerged, what is meant by it, and what are the structural characteristics that distinguish feminist writings, and whether female texts differ in their structure from masculinity. The aim of the study is to identify the representations of the concept of feminist criticism in the Iraqi theatrical text. The study dealt with the concept of feminist criticism and its references, the structure of the international feminist theatrical text, indicators of the theoretical framework, and previous studies. The research community included one sample, which is the play (Baghdad Sabaya 2018) by writer Awatif Naeem. Among the results of the research (1) that the author addressed the idea of ​​the text from social, economic and political topics that reflect the lived reality in Iraq, especially the events in Mosul in 2014, when Yazidi women were exiled, their symptoms were violated, and chaos resolved (2) the author used in her language similes and metaphors to clarify her idea to the recipient. Which constitutes a peculiarity in the presentation with its criticism of the forbidden and the silent about it, in a special language that reveals its awareness of itself and its role in restoring consideration for its marginalized human existence (3) The author used the formal language with the introduction of sentences and vocabulary in the colloquial language to convey the meaning in conveying the suffering and the degree of pain and giving an aesthetic to the dramatic event. An open culture that does not believe in drawn boundaries, and (5) the writer relied on the monodrama method to express restricted dreams, without adhering to standards that limit or suppress them, and express a viewpoint that adopts a feminist vision of the world, and women have had a great role through their management of the conflict within the dramatic event.</p> Russell Khalifah Kazem Al-Bakri Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 29 2 85 101 Indications of Scream in the Discourse of the Iraqi Theatrical Show https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3442 <p>The study sheds light on the communicative relationship between the actor and the receiver and between the show and the recipient, as the actor seeks to sense his abilities and emotions to reach the level of creativity that is embodied by his body movements, facial expressions, and the flexibility of his voice to highlight his psychological components according to the concept of the psychological cry because of its important semiotic meaning that is subject to interpretation by the recipient as a sign Vocal proceeds from the psychological state of the actor. The research problem is represented by the following questions: What are the connotations of the cry in the theatrical performance speech? As for the limits of the research, they are: objectively, studying the connotations of the scream and its types in theatrical presentation discourse, and spatially, the performances of the Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Babylon, and temporally the period between 2003 - 2006. The study presented the mechanism of producing the meaning philosophically, the mechanism of producing the scream in the theatrical performance and the mechanism of producing the scream psychologically. The research community consists of twelve theatrical performances exclusively directed or represented by faculty professors. Among the most important results of the study is the emergence of the cry in the selected theatrical performances in different proportions and with different connotations according to the different motives, causes, and temporal and spatial positions within a single theatrical work. The connotations of the cry are directly proportional to the course of the events of the play, starting from the starting point of the event until its end, as if it were a harmonious rhythm consisting of a series of cries: one of them was a reason for the production of the next cry, so the cries were linked with each other by causal relationships.</p> Ruqaiah Wahab Majeed Bayram Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-02-25 2021-02-25 29 2 102 131 Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and Their Approaching to the Art of Superrealism https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3434 <p>The study aims to identify Maslow's concept of needs and its approaches to the art of Superrealism. As for the limits of the research, it was determined by studying Maslow's concept of needs and its approaches with the products of Superrealism art in America and Europe for the period from 1967 to 2005. The study adopted the descriptive approach by using a content analysis method to analyze the research sample to reach the achievement of its objectives. The research sample was chosen by the intentional method and its number was three models, and from the results of the study: the adoption of the Superrealism mechanism of perception in the transfer of reality with all its particles as the main source for finding the places of beauty inherent in it in a way that the eye or the photograph cannot capture by employing drawings and photographs in an organized building, and this is what artistic currents, including realism, are not familiar with. As for the most prominent conclusions, the approach of Superrealism to Maslow's concept of needs in its reliance on sensory perceptions and the representation of the real world. The artist man cannot reach self-realization, knowledge and beauty except after satisfying his basic material and moral needs with all their particles. Superrealism represented a picture of the world of consumption, the labor market, and production, which directed art towards commercial advertisements and media that stimulate the senses and document the link with what is superficial and not essential, and this approaches Maslow's interests by trying to satisfy the psychological, physiological, economic, social and political needs as they represent the basic needs of the human being and without satisfying them he cannot keep alive.</p> Fatima Abdullah Omraan Dalal Hamza Mohammed Tsawahun Tklyf Maged Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 29 2 132 151 Climate and its Impact on Cultivating Industrial Crops in Najaf Governorate https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3435 <p>This study aims to investigate the state of the climate and its impact on the cultivation of industrial crops in the governorate of Najaf and to uncover the suitable areas for their cultivation, the medium areas and the areas not suitable for that. The study shows the effect of the climatic characteristics in the study area with finding a relationship between the necessary climatic requirements for the studied crops and the climatic characteristics, as well as determining the climatic suitability of the industrial crops in Najaf Governorate. The study clarified the climatic requirements for each of the industrial crops under study, including high, low, and optimum temperatures, light requirements, humidity and rain requirements, and wind requirements. Climatic characteristics were determined in the study area, such as solar radiation, temperatures, winds, atmospheric pressure, humidity, rain and evaporation.</p> <p>The results showed the effect of climate on industrial crops in the study area by assessing the suitability of the theoretical and actual brightness hours for cultivating industrial crops in the study area. The hours of theoretical brightness are of excellent degree of fitness as for hours of actual brightness of degree of average fitness. As for the sesame crop in hours of theoretical brightness with a degree of average suitability, as for the hours of actual brightness with a degree of excellent fit, as for the flax crop in hours of theoretical brightness with a degree of average suitability, as for the hours of actual brightness of an inappropriate degree.</p> Dhilal Jawad Kadhim Yassin Jawad Kadhim Obeid Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 29 2 152 184 Artistic Characteristics and Aesthetic Values of Medieval Painting https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3436 <p>The research studies the European art of painting in the Middle Ages for the period of time from 1100 to 1400 AD and it came in four investigations, the first of which included the presentation of the research problem that deals with the artistic characteristics and aesthetic values ​​of the European art of painting in the Middle Ages in addition to the research methodology, its importance, objectives and limits and defining terms. The second topic has Presenting the concept of medieval arts and the art of painting and its types by dividing it into three stages: Byzantine, Romanesque and Gothic, as well as fulfilling the concept of artistic characteristics and aesthetic values. As for the third topic, the research procedures included the study and analysis of the research sample, so that the fourth topic came with the results of the study and the most important conclusions, including that the art of photography was based on a structural system with a regular rhythm once and a free rhythm again to create regular and repeated formations that produced a harmonious and harmonious rhythm system that strengthened the structural structural relations and achieved Visual and aesthetic excitement, as the artist succeeded in imparting his works to a diversity of plastic, love of pictorial creation and interest in lines and colors. Intellectual, aesthetic and even spatial art through constructive artistic treatments in an abstract, symbolic style that tends to simplify and shorthand. The architectural and engineering side was introduced to occupy the important figures and events in the center of artistic painting in artistic spiritual spaces full of symbolism and religious connotations, and then mentioning the researcher's recommendations and proposals.</p> Ali Falih Musheer Al – Hussein Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 29 2 185 216 The Effect of Sarcasm on the Iraq Contemporary Caricature https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3437 <p>The importance of the research comes from the attempt to operate the trend of sarcasm and put it into artistic application as a phenomenon or a human condition and to clarify the extent of its operation in the field of contemporary Iraqi cartoon art, starting from its problem, which was summarized by answering the following question: What is the effect of satire tendency through formal treatments and implications on contemporary Iraqi caricature? As for the aim of the research, it is an attempt to reveal the effect of satire on contemporary Iraqi caricature, and it is determined by pictorials from contemporary Iraqi newspapers: (Al-Zaman - Al-Mada - Al-Zawra - Fraternity - Al-Sha`ab Path - The New Morning) obtained from the political cartoon site for the period from 2017 2018, the researcher prepared a content analysis form according to the descriptive approach to analyze the (55) models selected in a systematic, random way, and the most prominent results of the study were: There is a clear effect of satirical tendency on contemporary Iraqi caricature and the results indicated that the caricatures in contemporary Iraqi newspapers were characterized by the diversity of local and international political topics The economic, social, cultural and religious meanings were loaded with ironic formulations, and the most prominent recommendations were Paying attention to the concept of satirical tendency is a source of enriching the arts according to current and future challenges, and making use of the technologies provided by the Internet, especially in archiving caricatures.</p> Qasim Khudhair Abbas ALfarman Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-02-23 2021-02-23 29 2 217 243 Traffic Accident Scheme https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3443 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Traffic accidents are considered the most problem that humanitarian societies suffer from due to the huge effect on human's life and his properties، in addition to its effect upon the national economy، the more vehicles in the different roads the more increasing of this problem magnitude، so immediate presence of traffic police man in the area of accident is so important to be a witness of the accident، so he should be professional and know how to draw their schemes so he should be professional and know how to draw their schemes، drawing such accidents is so important to show facts of the accident and to determine the causers in that accident، because of that schemes are relied on in the court procedures to take a fair verdict.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Khadim Anaid Aljobory Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-02-25 2021-02-25 29 2 244 263 Iraq’s Relations with the Gulf Cooperation Council (1981-2011): A Historical Study of the Reasons that Kept Iraq from Joining it https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3438 <p>In the year 1981 AD, the Gulf Cooperation Council was established to include six countries and excludes the Arab Gulf Iraq, which is busy defending the six countries in front of Iran, to start a new page of relations between Iraq and the countries of the Council, which supported Iraq for fear of Iran's domination, material support that deserved repayment with the end of the war in 1988 AD from a country economically exhausted , This prompted Iraqi President Saddam Hussein to invade and occupy Kuwait in 1990, so that the council’s relations with Iraq are strained and the West is used to get Iraq out and destroy it and enter the region a dark tunnel. To begin another page of relations between the Council and Iraq, during which Iraq tried to arrange what the dictator spoiled, However, he did not find the interaction of the GCC states that kept Iraq outside its system, despite the existence of many justifications for Iraq’s joining the council. However, the GCC states saw by virtue of geographical proximity, shared history, experiences and foreign interventions, that Iraq is not at its best to be a member or partner in this system.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Mohammed Abbas Hameed Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-02-24 2021-02-24 29 2 264 292 Imagining Other and Moral Obligations in Coetzee’s The Master of Petersburg https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3440 <p>This paper investigates the moral obligations in imagining others in literature. It focuses on J.M. Coetzee’s masterpiece The Master of Petersburg. It argues that in this novel, Coetzee uses truth, betrayal, confession, and responsibility to the foreign other to introduce an elusive text that not only challenges but also evades any attempt to fit it into a simple or traditional frame of analysis. Such elusiveness emphasizes the complexity of imaging the foreign other as well as provoking unsettling thoughts about the role of literature as an influential instrument for our moral actions. The responsibility towards the other can be discussed in numerous levels but in this essay, I will discuss the text as semi-biographical. In other words, the discussion will focus on how Coetzee introduces the historical Dostoevsky and how Coetzee responds to such ethical burdens in his task of introducing the fictional and the historical Dostoevsky.</p> Median Mashkoor Hussein Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-02-24 2021-02-24 29 2 293 300 Designing an Iraqi Version of the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ) https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3441 <p>The current study aimed at creating an Iraqi version of Anxiety Control Questionnaire (ACQ). Inability to control anxiety is not just a temporary emotion that faces a human being in a certain situation, because continuous anxiety would have a negative impact on mental health that tend to be enduring which might result in multiple forms of maladaptation. That questionnaire is a well-established tool to measure anxiety control. The instrument was translated to Arabic and administered to a group of 100 male and female university students, after consulting a panel of experts. Statistical analyses showed that the Iraqi version of the instrument features face validity and reliability indicators rating between 0.82 to 0.83. The study concluded to a group of suggestions and recommendations.</p> Aqeel Khaleel Naser Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-02-24 2021-02-24 29 2 301 315