Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>ournal of <strong>U</strong>niversity of <strong>B</strong>abylon for <strong>H</strong>umanities, (<span style="color: #ff6600;"><strong>JUBH</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBH</strong> is a Humanities peer-reviewed open access journal monthly publishing high-quality research and papers at the lead of recent research describing significant developments in Human Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>ISSN:&nbsp;<a title="ISSN:&nbsp;2617-0906" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2617-0906</a></strong></span></p> University of Babylon en-US Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities 2617-0906 Risks of Credit Grant by Commercial Banks <p>The risk is a natural element in the banking environment, and it is accompanied regardless of its nature and whatever its type. Therefore, the commercial banks, when providing loans and credits, are exposed to a set of risks. The latter is the result of a number of factors, but the intrinsic factor is a result of the unwillingness of the borrower to pay back the owed debts or the inability to generate an appropriate income for the purpose of repaying the loan.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The credit risk is the primary variable affecting net income and the market value of equity resulting from non-payment or postponement and there are different types characterized by the possibility of default, and loans represent the largest of these types, which characterized the greatest amount of credit risk, the change in economic conditions and the operating climate of the company affects the cash flows available that serve the debt. Therefore, these conditions must be predicted, even if only in part, by using statistical methods, methods and models to make it easier for banks to analyze the credit for each loan application separately to assess the borrower's ability to repay the loan, so banks should attach special importance to such risks in order to put an end to the negative effects resulting and keep it to the lowest level as possible.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ahmed Hasan Wasmi Shakir Noori Ismael Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 29 7 1 19 The Political Discourse and Its Impact on the Iraqi-Turkish Relations (2003-2019) <p>The political rhetoric was clearly reflected in the bilateral relations between Iraq and Turkey after 2003. Turkey found in the process of change of the Iraqi political system carried out by the United States of America an opportunity for opening up to Iraq, The government of (Nuri al-Maliki) the first and second, although the two countries signed many bilateral agreements during that period, but they were not fully implemented, the Iraqi political discourse witnessed a positive change towards Turkey with (Haidar al-Abadi) assuming the premiership in the country, However, these relations were not long ago until it returned to the crisis due to the Turkish agendas in Iraq, considered the Turkish government to take (Adel Abdul Mahdi) Iraqi Prime Minister a new opportunity to rebuild new relations based on a balanced and rational speech.</p> Ahmed Majeed Jassim Muhammed Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 29 7 20 36 The Legal Legislation of the Holding Companies in the Iraqi Law in Light of Amendment No. (17) of 2019 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The aim of the research is to shed light on the legal rules regulating holding companies in light of the provisions of the Iraqi Companies Law in force No. 21 of 1997 amended by Law No. 17 of 2019 and published in Issue No. (4554) of the Iraqi Gazette published on 9/9/ 2019, as the amendment added a new type to the types of commercial companies in the Iraqi law, namely holding companies and defined their form and activity, and the holding companies are of great importance as they form an economic unit that has great financial capabilities in establishing large and influential projects in the economies of countries as they represent a type of company that simplifies Its control over companies that are financially and administratively affiliated with it, and for the sake of understanding the most important legal aspects related to the topic of the research, we will also shed light on the issue of the foreign person’s contribution to Iraqi companies and the amendment that accompanied the addition of holding companies as a new type of commercial company. Amending the text of Article (12) of the Iraqi Companies Law in force in a manner that guarantees preventing the foreign person from controlling Iraqi national companies and forming economic entities affiliated with A companies By restricting the share of the foreign person to no more than (49%) of the capital of the company. Paragraphs (second and third) of Article (12) of the Companies Law were suspended according to the (dissolved) Coalition Provisional Authority Order No. (74) of 2004. And that the period prior to the amendment of the Iraqi Companies Law in 2019, the foreign person’s contribution rate was not restricted, and that this amendment coincided with the addition of holding companies as a new type, which is a step to protect the national economy from the control of foreign companies, despite all the above, there are some aspects that need more legal regulation. Accuracy, consistency and reformulation to preserve the legal order and complementarity between the legal texts that regulate an important aspect of economic life represented by commercial companies, and all of this will be addressed through our modest research</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Aseen Farhan Jassim Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 29 7 37 54 The Employment of Learning Orientation in Promoting the Innovative Behavior for the Employees of the Directorate of Education in Najaf: A Survey <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The current research seeks to know the nature of the relationship between learning orientation and innovation behavior, as well as to know the effect of the independent variable (learning orientation) in its four dimensions (commitment to learning, sharing of visionOpen-mindedness, Intraorganizational knowledge sharing), which was measured using a scale (Calantone, Cavusgil &amp; Zhao, 2002)The dependent variable (innovation behavior) with its six dimensions (idea generation, idea search, idea communication, Implementation starting activities, engaging others, overcoming obstacles), which was measured using the scale (Lukeš, &amp; Stephan, 2017).</p> <p><strong>Design /methodology</strong>: The research was applied to a sample of employees working in the in&nbsp; Education Directorate Najaf, and a simple random sample consisting of (93) employees was chosen. The current research adopted the questionnaire as a main tool for data collection, and the research aims to test the relationship and influence to find out the relationship between the research variables. Several statistical analyzes were adopted to process the data, including Cronbach's Alpha the weighted mean, standard deviation, simple correlation coefficient and regression analysis using the statistical program (SPSS VR.23).</p> <p><strong>The importance of the research: </strong>The importance of the current research emerges from the lack of studies that dealt with the relationship between the variables of the learning orientation and innovation behavior) as well as the current research attempt to study and address a realistic problem that directly affects the working individuals and society in the in&nbsp; Education Directorate Najaf.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The research reached cognitive and applied conclusions, including the existence of a statistically significant correlation between the independent variable and the dependent variable and the presence of a statistically significant effect between the direction of learning and the behavior of innovation.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations:</strong></p> <p>1-The organization under study should pay attention to the direction of learning among workers and instill this behavior in their daily work practices.</p> <p>2-The organization under study is required to encourage innovation behavior among employees in a manner that leads to achieving organizational excellence and success.</p> Akram sami Fayez AL- samry Mohsen Ali AL-Hatami Walaa Montadher Jassem Mohamed AL-Orbawi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 29 7 55 81 Aesthetic Dimensions of Abstractionism in Contemporary Architecture <p>&nbsp;The current research concerned me with a study (the aesthetic dimensions of abstractionism in contemporary architecture). The research contains four chapters. The first chapter is devoted to explaining the research problem, its importance and the need for it, and defining the research problem.&nbsp; In answering the following questions: What are the aesthetic treatments taken by the abstract plasticist trend in contemporary architecture?&nbsp; Is there a difference and convergence in the aesthetic treatments of abstractionism in architecture and art?&nbsp; The aesthetic dimensions of the abstract tendency in contemporary architecture? .&nbsp; The chapter also included the aim of the research, which is: Know the aesthetic dimensions of abstractionism in contemporary architecture and take Oscar Niemas as a model.</p> <p>&nbsp;The research limits were limited to the time period (1970-2003), as for spatially the architectural models completed on the ground and implemented in Brazil.</p> <p>&nbsp;As for the second chapter: it included the theoretical framework and it contained two topics: The first topic was concerned with the study of the aesthetic dimensions in philosophy and the relationship between art and architecture and its philosophical abstract idea.&nbsp; Through a review of Hegel's vision and abstract thought, the second topic deals with abstraction in contemporary architecture.</p> <p>&nbsp;As for the third chapter: it includes the research procedures that include:</p> <p>&nbsp;The research community, the research sample, the research methodology, the research tool, the statistical means used and the sample analysis (4) as a model.</p> <p>&nbsp;As for the fourth chapter, it contained findings and conclusions in addition to recommendations. The researcher reached basic conclusions, including: -</p> <p>1- The aesthetic dimensions of the abstract tendency appeared in contemporary architecture, the art of modern architecture through the adoption of formal and chromatic reduction.</p> <p>2- Free play of form, material and execution in the technique of architectural façades achieved an aesthetic dimension in the formation of facades of modernity architecture as in the specimen models.</p> <p>3-The exoticism of the design idea and the imagined pattern in the presentation of the architectural conformation has gained contemporary architecture an aesthetic dimension.</p> Alaa Abdulhameed Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 29 7 82 101 Communication Policies in the Light of Globalization and Modern Technology <p>This research aims to reveal the manifestations of globalization and its communication systems and ideologies in light of the information society and modern technology, in addition to providing a vision of Iraq's experience in communication and development policies in light of globalization. A vision was presented of an Iraqi experience of communication and development policies to confront globalization in the field of politics and economy in particular because the economy is the lifeblood of the state and society. This vision was deduced from what preceded us from successful experiences in the world, such as the Malaysian experience. The research reached the most important results:</p> <p>1- Communication and technology policies and the globalization of the economy have become a political and ideological bet that dominates individuals and societies. The democratic authority recorded a decline in the face of the financial authority and the linking of the political decisions of the state to external dictates and the institutions of globalization.</p> <p>2- The emergence of the phenomenon of “global control” which is the goal of political globalization, which affects the depth of national policies and this leads to the erosion and extinction of the concept of national sovereignty, and the loss of governments from their ability to make their internal and external national policies.</p> <p>3- The map of the new world order moves on the geopolitical (geographical) countries, including Iraq.</p> <p>4- The prevalence of uncertainty and resentment at the geopolitical level, especially in the areas of developing and poor societies due to the policies of globalization.</p> <p>5- Societies turn into weak systems unable to absorb the dynamics of transformations in the era of globalization and eliminate them with obsolescence and affliction. Societies are left in a state of chaos, turmoil, anxiety and doubt, which characterizes the current era, especially in societies that do not have strategic projects and immunities.</p> <p>6- The openness to the global monetary market has become an ideology and the countries of the world have applied the policies of globalized openness and compliance with them due to the pressures exerted by these organizations.</p> Intesar Rasmi Mousa Rajaa Sady Lafta Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 29 7 102 123 Trends towards Using the e-Learning Portal among Students of the Middle Trechincal University in Teaching Mathematics <p>The present study aims to identify<strong>Trends towards using the e-earning portal among students of the Middle Technical University in teaching mathematics</strong> to investigate the aims of study, a null – hypothesis is formulated as follows:</p> <p>There is no statistical difference is significant at the significance level (0.05) between the average scores of the experimental group students who studied using the e-learning portal, and the average score of the control group students who studied in the usual method in the measure of the trend towards the educational use of the Internet. The sample consisted of (42) male and female students in the first class in the Department of Civil Technologies / Institute of Technology / middle Technical University, it was divided into two groups, experimental and control. Where a measure of the trend towards educational use of the Internet was prepared, and it consisted in its final form of (40) items, its Sekoumtrah characteristics were verified, and the reliability coefficient reached (0.95) by adopted (the Alpha-Kronbach method). The experiment was applied to the research sample in the second semester of the academic year (2018-2019), where the experimental group studied the classes prepared for research using the e-learning portal, while the control group studied according to the usual method and the researcher applied the experiment herself, for fifteen weeks. After collecting the data and using the appropriate statistical methods, the results of the research were as follows:</p> <p>The presence of statistically significant between the mean scores of the experimental group and the control group in a scale that makes trading for the Internet and in favor of the experimental group. In light of these results, the researcher recommends didactically teach mathematics for first-stage students in all institutes and colleges of the Central Technical University. And the emergence of research in the educational content system (Moodle) for the features with which this system was presented and that it is open source and it is suggested to study the number of complementary studies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ennam Shakier Khudier Faten Abdel Hamid Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 29 7 124 136 Samples Of Akkadian Sculptures And Their Location's:A Scientific Art Study <p>Apparently ,researchers had little to show about the Akkcadian arts due to a restricted technology at their time, nowadays it considered something from the past, nevertheless, this situation was the motive to start again doing some things with new technology by the aids of satellite with a science called remote sensing.&nbsp; Initially the work has definition to the Akkadian and the truth&nbsp; about their origin, and the sequence of the kings ruled on . We also mentioned the Sculptures and the nature of their tools used at that time, we explained the types of the Sculptures, the three dimensional and the eminent craft types, they are so popular, like the&nbsp; plane and the cylindrical seals ,showing their beautiful and fine art&nbsp; .<br>in this paper, we're mixing for the first time, the traditional archeological findings with new ways of satellite imaging, thy called ,remote sensing, by Google earth programs.&nbsp;&nbsp; A very significant results appeared, showing the Akkadian findings spreaded allover Iraq ,from the north down to the south and exceeded Iraq borders to Iran . The locations orientations are listed in a table with a simple map showing these locations.</p> Ruaa Zuhair Zidane alKurwy Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 29 7 137 166 Criminal Topical Guarantees for the Public Employee <p>The public employeeis the mainstay of state bodies and institutions, as he is entrusted with the task of running the state’s public utilities in order to achieve the public interest, and with the development of state activity and its transformation from the framework of the guard state to the intervening state, the fields of activities that entered the state increased, the expansion of the work of the public employee increased. The employee today is the state’s means In performing its role and providing services to achieve the public interest and to ensure the regular and steady functioning of public utilities. It is the vital nerve of the state’s organs and the conductor of their work, which led to the public employee’s contact with the public of citizens, and accordingly it became necessary to criminally protect the employee from the arbitrariness of individuals and their verbal and actual attacks against him, as this protection ensures the employee’s confidence in the field of his work to do everything in his power to perform his duties to the fullest. In the face, the criminal rights and guarantees granted to the public servant are proven to him as a means that allows him to maintain his social position corresponding to his job and a guarantee of the privacy he enjoys as a representative of the public authority.</p> <p>Therefore, the criminal law considered the behavior issued by the public employee to perform the duty. Every act the employee performs in implementation of a legal rule or an order issued to him by the public authority and obliges him to perform certain actions or be in implementation of the order of the public authority, where criminal laws have settled on considering the performance of duty as reasons for permissibility The state, through its employees, exercises the set of powers entrusted to it under the constitution and the law, including those that entail infringement on the rights and interests protected by the Penal Code, provided that this infringement is in the public interest, as the law does not consider it a crime because this infringement is a performance of duty and thus the performance of duty appeared as one of the reasons Permissibility, and it was stipulated in the modern penal codes, organized and stipulated, including the Iraqi Penal Code No. (111) of 1969, where it was stipulated in Article (40) thereof.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Zahraa Hatim Adulkadhim Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 29 7 167 189 The Applicable law to the physician's Contractual Responsibility : A Comparative study <p>Many patients travel for treatment because of poor, insufficient, or underdeveloped medical care and the emigration of many medical professionals. Some patients suffer from poor care provided after returning from treatment abroad, as specialized tourism companies in some countries enable patients to access health care, which is called medical tourism. Many countries in the world have taken an interest in this, such as the European Union and the United States of America. We did not find international rules governing doctor's responsibility, but we found only the general rules in notional responsibility in international law.</p> <p>The World Health Organization (WHO) has taken an interest in patient safety to increase the number of medical errors every year in the world, as legal procedures are often insufficient and the patient needs to file a complaint before or after returning home to submit to the laws of that country, and the countries that apply the insurance system provide adequate insurance, and insurance companies are reluctant to pay sometimes because of medical negligence.</p> <p>Due to the scarcity of legal studies, I examined the general rules on conflict of laws on the responsibility of doctors, a comparative study between Iraqi civil law and some of the laws of states, international agreements, and the European Directive on the safety of patients.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>in two searches, the first one for the attribution rules applicable to the physician's responsibility, and the second one for the attribution rules applicable to liability.&nbsp;</p> <p>She concluded that the reason for the increase in medical malpractice in the international context is that doctors work to sign the patient waiver of his right to prosecution, and that many of the medical and moral damages change and increase after his return to his homeland. It is necessary to establish medical committees from the Ministry of Health to allow Iraqi patients to travel abroad, monitor their cases, and choose specialized hospitals through Iraqi embassies in those countries.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hiba Thamer Mahmood Al-Samak Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 29 7 190 224 The Position of the Arabic Linguistic Identity in the Linguistic Vision of the World: A Socio-linguistic Study <p>&nbsp;this research studies with descriptive-analytic approach the development of world view concept, since new research emerged that affirms the confusion between the two concepts in german language. The research as well presents Russian linguists efforts concerning the concept in Russian modern linguistics. The research presents also the relation between Arabic linguistic world view and religious and patriarchal world view. The results of the research: first: there is a confusion between two concepts in German language, weltanschauung and weltansicht, and the task of the research was to distinguish the two concepts and specify the concept used by Humboldt. Second: presenting the developing of the concept of world view in Russian linguistics, which embraced the concept that Weisgerber used. Third: affirm the particularity of Arabic language in the connection between language world view and religious and patriarchal world views.</p> Saeed Yaseen Jawad Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon 2021-07-18 2021-07-18 29 7 225 240