Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>ournal of <strong>U</strong>niversity of <strong>B</strong>abylon for <strong>H</strong>umanities, (<span style="color: #ff6600;"><strong>JUBH</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBH</strong> is a Humanities peer-reviewed open access journal monthly publishing high-quality research and papers at the lead of recent research describing significant developments in Human Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>ISSN:&nbsp;<a title="ISSN:&nbsp;2617-0906" href="https://extranet.issn.org/resource/issn/2617-0906" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2617-0906</a></strong></span></p> University of Babylon en-US Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities 2617-0906 Community Development and Human Security Challenges of Begging in Iraq https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3778 <p>Human security was found for the sake of human being to protect his rights and happiness in a society in which social justice and sustainable development is elevated and is one of the pillars of preserving the family cohesion for the child welfare. Human connection is related to the foundation of social development and country’s economy because it’s progressive, changeable and affected by crises. So, we have to focus on vagrantly manifestation and poverty in Iraqi society, its causes and the government’s involvement to develop Begging in Iraqi society and its causes, and the government’s involvement to develop a strategy to reduce unemployment and poverty, and to create a database on domestic violence due to the inadequacy of national legislation to deter begging crimes, and to work to rehabilitate and integrate displaced persons into society.</p> Dalal Sadiq Ahmid Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-09-29 2021-09-29 29 9 1 19 An Aesthetic Reading In A Poem (AL Quds) by the Palestinian Poet Tamim Barghouti https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3779 <p>The study aims to reveal the aesthetic visions on which a poem (in Jerusalem) is based in terms of the eloquence of the poetic visions it contains at the textual level, so the study will stand on textual thrillers from the textual editorial, to the aesthetic variables that prove its rhythm, and its aesthetic transformation in terms of value and textual sensitivity. Since poetry is a mass of textual mutants, what evokes poetry in the Poem of Jerusalem, the stylistic variables that highlight the eloquence of the images, and their transformations in the provoked poetry of depth. On this basis, the study will take into account the displacement formations raised by poetic images in their eloquent aesthetic pattern, in accordance with aesthetic requirements that confirm their eloquence and aesthetic rhythm.</p> Huiam Abual Kadhem Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-09-29 2021-09-29 29 9 20 38 The Deleted and Added Topics in Al-Wassiti Drawing https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3780 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The research covered the first four chapters dealt with the first problem of research and its importance and need. The researcher defined the limits of his study with the productions of the artist Yahya Al-Wasiti related to the subject deleted and added and ended the chapter with the most important definitions of terms. The second chapter included three topics, the first included a philosophical presentation of the deleted and added, and the second section included the most important Islamic schools in the painting, while the third section included the school of Baghdad, which started AL-Wasseti. The third chapter dealt with the research procedures that included the research society and a sample of (50) Miniature (7) Forms that was chosen intentionally. In front of Chapter IV, which presented the most Of whichThe Arab manuscript book revealed the values, sciences and arts of the nation as the container carrying this achievement and the field in which the Arab Muslim artist practiced his creations in line, decoration, gilding and photography.As the researcher reached for the most important conclusion . The spread of the drawings of the Muqamat al-Hariri led the photographers around them, mixing fantasy with reality and truth with myth.</p> <p>Recommendations and proposals.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Kamil Azzal Hbeeb Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-09-29 2021-09-29 29 9 39 73 Social Media Networks Role in Supporting Local Product A Field Survey Study of Social Media Networksusers in Baghdad City https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3781 <p>Reliance on foreign goods and products greatly has a negative impact on the national economy of any country and pushes it to retreat significantly, since that dependence makes hard currency migrate abroad and thus weakens the value of the local currency in trade exchange, which creates a large gap in the difference between the two currencies, while if This money has been invested at home, then this will reflect positively on the recovery of the economic sector and benefit everyone without exception, and the national product represents the main axis in the process of economic development of countries, as it represents the national identity that must be protected and supported by all parties, whether governmental through legislation and setting strategies that support industrial development in the country that support the national product, given the role it plays in increasing national income, absorbing the workforce, reducing unemployment and providing local products instead of imported products, and individuals have an important role in the process of supporting the national product from During the demand for it and placing it at the top of their consumer priorities, and moving away from the imported product that has a local alternative .</p> <p>As a result, recently, many campaigns in support of the national product and promotion of re-broadcasting life in it by reproducing, selling and consuming have spread on social media networks, as it created many pages on Facebook, most notably the page (Supporting the National Product), which is managed by a group Of young people from different Iraqi governorates who confirmed that the page was widely spread by the Iraqi community, and even among Iraqi expatriates.</p> <p>The process of promoting the local product is one of the most important pillars of strengthening the national economy, providing hard currencies and improving the quality of the local product in line with the desires of the consumer. Social media networks are one of the most important interactive communication tools in the modern era, and their ability to direct and influence the purchasing behavior of individuals because of their Great and wide spread among members of society,</p> <p>Our research came to shed light on social media networks and their role in directing consumer behavior towards the national product, and the researcher used the survey method to achieve the research objectives, by designing a special questionnaire for this topic to obtain the answers that the research aims to, and the research sample was chosen from users of social networks. Social Security Council in the city of Baghdad by (200) questionnaires, and the research reached a set of results, the most important of which are:</p> <p>1 - Social media networks contributed to knowing the level of awareness of social media users in encouraging the national product.</p> <p>2 - The impact of social media networks on the image of the national product, to facilitate user exposure to the product, knowledge of quality standards and its comparison with foreign goods.</p> <p>3 - the contribution of social media networks in attracting users and their acquisition of the national product.</p> <p>4 - The pages that promote the national product need to develop the method of presenting the national product to raise the level of promotion and ensure consumer attraction.</p> <p>5 - Social media networks provided the opportunity to develop the national product by presenting users' ideas in this regard.</p> Wissam Ghaly Qassem Majid Abboud Fahd Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-09-29 2021-09-29 29 9 74 94 Measurement and Evaluation and Its Relationship to the Mathematical Knowledge of Ibn Al-Haytham College of Education Students https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3782 <p>Objective of the research is to reveal the level of students' (teachers) mathematical knowledge and its relationship to measurement and evaluation, and how we apply measurement and evaluation tools in the sporting history</p> <p>Procedures: A student scale was built that included a number of paragraphs that demonstrated a high level of honesty and consistency in the pilot sample, in addition to raising the level of accuracy in formulating and selecting the paragraphs of the questionnaire by achieving a high level From agreement on the importance of all its paragraphs, which reflects the accuracy of the content of the paragraphs and axes of the standard prepared to study the phenomenon in question, and the descriptive inferential approach was used.</p> <p>The problem of research: measurement, and evaluation leads to a change in some objectives and modification of others. It also leads to a change in teaching methods and all methods used and sheds light on the problems facing the use of mathematical knowledge. Whereas, mathematical knowledge is associated with many problems and welts (The relationship of measurement and evaluation in students' mathematical knowledge of mathematics).</p> <p>Results: that measurement and evaluation are of utmost importance in the detection of public and private sports cognitive levels, and it has an endless role in promoting skills and advancing educational programs and individual and group behaviors.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hiyam Mahdi Jawad Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-09-29 2021-09-29 29 9 95 111 Evaluate the Content of the Science Book for the Sixth Grade in Accordance with the Requirements of Health Enlightenment https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3783 <p>The current research aims to evaluate the content of the science book for the sixth grade in accordance with the requirements of health enlightenment, and to achieve the goal of the research, the two researchers built a tool that includes the requirements of health enlightenment, consisting in its initial form of (5) main requirements, from which (45) sub-requirements emerged, In order to verify its validity, it was presented to the experts and specialists in the curriculum and the specialization of methods of teaching life sciences, and they made a number of observations represented by deleting, adding and reformulating some requirements, and thus the tool in its final form consisted of (5) main requirements: (healthy nutrition, personal hygiene, first aid) Environmental health, the human body) stems (37) sub-requirements, The two researchers analyzed and evaluated the content of the science book for the sixth grade of the elementary school year (2019-2020) by (258) pages in light of the list of requirements that they prepared to verify the extent to which the science book included them. And the same over time as it reached (0.88), and the second method between the first researcher and the second researcher, where the stability coefficient reached (0.82),After evaluating the science book in light of the list of requirements prepared for this purpose, the researcher concluded that the content of the science book for the sixth grade of primary school was at a poor level compared to the spoken ratio adopted by the two researchers based on the opinions of the experts, which is (70%) Of the proposals.</p> Wasan Mohan Mohsen Al-Razaki Nadia Hussein Al-Afoun Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-09-29 2021-09-29 29 9 112 129 Cultural Schools of the Contemporary Iraqi Poetry:The Poetry of the Sixties as an example https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3784 <p>The research sought to approach a group of poems in the experiences of a group of contemporary Iraqi poets who belong to the sixtieth generation in particular, and these poems have a certain artistic specificity, and they are the poems that the reference awareness exerted its clear pressure on, as this awareness took a dominant form of it, and the research tried to stand on The various methods practiced by the poets in the dialogue of their references, and the attempt to reproduce them in line with the general human experiences.</p> Saad Ali AL-Murshedi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-09-29 2021-09-29 29 9 130 148 The Effect of Using Blended Education on the Students’ Achievement and Critical Thinking in the Subject of Physics for Preparatory Fifth Grade https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3786 <p>The current research aims to (the effect of the use of integrated education in achievement and critical thinking of the fifth scientific students in the subject of physics. A sample of (31) students were divided into two groups (after applying the principle of social distancing to avoid the spread of the virus, and also not all of them have a good living income, some of them have income The poor, poor class, who did not receive e-learning, blended education, and they studied according to the traditional method) in Fatima Al-Zahra High School for First Girls, experimental. Their number was (16) and a control group of (15) studied in the usual way. And a test for critical thinking consists of (15) paragraphs and each paragraph contains (5) answers, one of them is correct for skills (assumptions, interpretation, evaluation of arguments, deduction, conclusion), and the results of the research showed the existence of statistically significant differences at the level of (0.05) In the mean scores of the experimental and control group in the achievement and critical thinking tests in favor of the experimental group.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Samira Adnan Tharthar Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-09-29 2021-09-29 29 9 149 174 The Role and Reflection of Information Technology on Tourism Management: An Empirical Study on Administrative Workers’ Opinions in Tourism Companies in Baghdad https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3787 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The research seeks to clarify the role of information technology and its reflection on tourism management through an applied study of the views of a sample of administrative workers for a number of tourism companies in Baghdad city. As with the acceleration of technological progress, the scope of reliance on information technology begins to expand to include different vital areas including tourism companies. Tourism companies (under discussion) must make use of components of information technology in tourism management. The study summarizes the existence of an important role for information technology in tourism management. One of its most important recommendations is the use of companies and experts specializing in the field of information technology, information training of administrative leaders and employees on how to use it. The research consists of theoretical and practical sides of the study and the relationship between these two parts.</p> Hassan Oda Ghdhab Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-09-29 2021-09-29 29 9 175 201 The Effect of the Gardens of Knowledge Strategy on Cognitive Thinking and Scientific Skills for First Primary Grader in Sciences Subject https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3800 <p>The research aims to identify the effect of the knowledge gardens strategy on the cognitive thinking and scientific skills of first-grade students in the science subject</p> <p>The researchers set two goals to achieve the research procedures by formulating two zero hypotheses after the researchers identified the research community and its sample in the first grade pupils within the education of the Al-Aziziyah district in Wasit governorate within two schools in Al-Aziziyah, Al-Azizia Primary School for Boys. The experimental, Al-Rusafi Primary School for Boys, complying with Division B, was studied according to the usual method. The researchers also prepared two cognitive thinking tests, with 20 items of the two-alternative test and the scientific skills test consisting of 15 items for the presented experiments. The results showed the superiority of the pupils of the experimental group that studied the strategy of knowledge gardens in thinking Cognitive and scientific skills in science for first-grade pupils.</p> Mohammed Jassim Abdul Amir Heba Mohamed Saleh Naktal Jameel Younus Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-10-04 2021-10-04 29 9 202 216 Symbolism in the Drawings of the Primitive Man https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3798 <p>Sibiological studies (speleology) recorded their last and most important discoveries between 1991-2001, through the announcement of a group of caves dating back to the Paleolithic era, and thus reopened the door to palaeoartological studies (Stone Age arts) again. These caves include a rare collection of cave paintings that add new and unexpected knowledge to what was previously explored throughout Europe, which would expand and diversify our knowledge of cave art, as well as reveal new functions, goals, means, technologies and topics that were not previously known in studies. Palaeoartology. Therefore, the main research problem from which we start is determined by the symbolism through which we can reformulate the cognitive image of the research topic with an objective vision, and a comprehensive extrapolation of the recent archaeological discoveries and what they achieve from the addition due to each new knowledge, and what can result from the disclosure of new aspects that will inevitably be added. Cognitive facts that may confirm and confirm the results of previous knowledge or may change and investigate or displace other, and here we must say that confirming facts in such a field is no less important than disclosing them, let alone changing them.It included primitive drawing and the effect of (symbolism) in cave paintings, with the help of some pictorials. As for the third topic (Symbolic Signs in Neanderthal Drawings), and in this topic the researcher showed the most important symbolic connotations in cave drawings and the works of art left by primitive man, while the third axis included research procedures that included the research community, its sample, the research tool and its methodology, as well as the analysis of his adult sample. (5) From Musawarat al-Caves.</p> <p>As for the fourth and final axis, it included presenting the results of the research, discussing them and its conclusions reached by the current research, as well as recommendations and proposals. Among the findings of the researcher are1. The indication of the existence of an artistic incentive, and what is supported by the presence of an internal moral incentive, so we notice the drawings, which were executed on the high ceilings of the cave, as we find suffering and hardship in their implementation.</p> <ol> <li class="show">The indication of the existence of an artistic incentive, and what is supported by the presence of an internal moral incentive, so we notice the drawings, which were executed on the high ceilings of the cave, as we find suffering and hardship in their implementation.</li> <li class="show">Abstract connotations and concepts of things, and imaginative perceptions, as myth became the spiritual nourishment, and these spiritual perceptions were embodied in a specific form and structure with characteristics related to the nature of the internal thing, and his interest in the form that expresses the essence, which is the symbolic form.</li> </ol> Abdul Rahim Abadi Al-Mayahi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-09-29 2021-09-29 29 9 217 244 The Effect of Cognitive Behavioral Counseling in Reducing Smoking Addiction among Intermediate School Students https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3806 <p>The phenomenon of smoking addiction is one of the most dangerous phenomena that kills human health, and it is the second cause of death in the world, and local reports indicate that about (20%) of middle school students in Iraq are smokers. Cognitive behavioral counseling is one of the most prominent types of psychological counseling, as it is organized counseling The session set focuses on the guide's awareness of cognitive errors, and is considered very appropriate to solve the problem of smoking addiction, and the current research aims to know the effect of cognitive behavioral counseling in reducing smoking addiction among middle school students, and it is determined for middle school students Baquba City Center in Diyala Education Directorate for the academic year 2019 / 2020, the sample consisted of (14) students distributed randomly into two groups (experimental and control) by (7) students for each group, and to achieve the goal of the research, the smoking addiction scale was applied for (Fagerstrom 1991). (10) sessions that the researcher verified their validity by presenting them to the arbitrators, and by using statistical means, the results showed: There are statistically significant differences at the level of (0.05) between the experimental and control groups after the application of the counseling sessions Leader, and through this result the researcher made a number of recommendations and proposals.</p> Safa’a Qassim Abdullah Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 29 9 145 261 Iraqi Early Parliamentary Elections between the Protestors’ Legitimate Demands and the Existing Challenges https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3807 <p>Elections are a constitutional right, they considered one as the most important political rights of citizens . Therefore, it is natural for citizens, in the light of a democratic state, to practice the process of universal suffrage, which is the backbone of democracy in the light of an appropriate environment , within a fair and equitable electoral law, as we saw that the most important demand of the protesters is to be a fair electoral law, and this is considered one of their legitimate rights, because rights need guarantees, and it is taken not to given. Therefore, one of the guarantees of rights is the prevention or treatment of their violations, which necessitates the existence of mechanisms through which this is achieved.</p> <p>In the time that followed 2003, the Iraqi arena witnessed many waves of popular protests, the beginning of which was about the nature of the American presence in Iraq, and it is still continuing until now.</p> <p>One of the most important reasons for these protests is the faltering of the Iraqi economy, which is already suffering from many problems, resulting from the conditions of political and security instability that the country had faced for years, which had been in a state of war against ISIS for nearly five years before its outbreak .</p> <p>However, it is noticeable in the October 2019 demonstrations that they were clearly different from their predecessors to show the extent of the accumulated mass discontent, these protests spread very quickly in Baghdad and most of the central and southern governorates, despite the fact that Iraq’s permanent constitution of 2005 clearly indicated the right to demonstrate by saying , the state hat it guarantees, without prejudice to public order and morals, freedom of expression by all available means, this is regulated by law, however, with a general look at all the previous demonstrations, we find that they did not develop in the way that we saw in the October 2019 protests and the developments that accompanied it which was almost influential in one way or another on the Iraqi political reality in general and the political scene in particular .</p> Zuhair Kudair Abbas Luma Abbas Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 29 9 262 279 Printing and Design History in the World's Ancient Civilizations https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3808 <p>The current research deals with studying and documenting the history of the emergence of the first signs of the art of graphic design and the first printing in the history of humanity. He was represented by a psychological (psychological) aspect in simulating nature and facing the environment, components and living creatures contained in that nature, passing through the beginning of the formation of cities and urbanization and building the first population villages after a life of fragmentation, displacement, absence of family and building society, which contributed greatly to the development of the first printing arts In Mesopotamia, and Egypt, China, India, Persia, Greece, the Romans and other ancient Civilizations.</p> Mu’taz Inad Ghazwan Ruwaida Faisal Musa Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-10-14 2021-10-14 29 9 280 311 Civil Liability for the Infringement of the Right to Digital Oblivion https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/3809 <p>Personal data, such as images, for example, once posted on the Internet, can be endlessly numerous due to its digital nature, that is, it becomes eternal, especially when its owner does not withdraw it in time before its spread, or may not be able to withdraw or cancel it due to the policy of Some sites that set the conditions for waiving the rights of such personal data, as they remain in the archives of those sites, which allows anyone to refer to them in a few seconds despite the passage of a long period of time since their publication, and therefore may reuse, publish or defame them. Therefore, the regulations and legislation took the initiative to organize (the right to be forgotten), which justifies each person's claim to oppose and forget to re-publish information and data of his own after a specified period of time in the future.</p> Aliaa Zamil Mshtat Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/CopyrightandLicensing 2021-10-17 2021-10-17 29 9 312 331