Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>ournal of <strong>U</strong>niversity of <strong>B</strong>abylon for <strong>H</strong>umanities, (<span style="color: #ff6600;"><strong>JUBH</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBH</strong> is a Humanities peer-reviewed open access journal monthly publishing high-quality research and papers at the lead of recent research describing significant developments in Human Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>ISSN:&nbsp;<a title="ISSN:&nbsp;2617-0906" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2617-0906</a></strong></span></p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Ahmed Sahib Mubarak) (Ahmed Sahib Mubarak) Mon, 26 Apr 2021 06:57:10 +0000 OJS 60 Semiology of the White and Black Colors in the Theatrical Scenery: Some Selected Samples <p><img src=""></p> Asmaa Shakir Nema , Shaimaa Hussein Taher , Nebras Hisham Haddad Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Polysemy of “Head” in English and Kurdish <p>Polysemy is the phenomenon where a linguistic unit denotes multiple yet related meanings. These semantic extensions have a clear motivation through either metaphor or metonymy which are central to cognitive linguistic. This paper examines the polysemous meanings of body part term “head” in both the English and the Kurdish languages and reveals certain similarities and differences in terms of metaphor and metonymy. The data of this paper are dictionaries of the English Language. As far as the Kurdish language is concerned, the researchers depend on their experiences, because they are native speakers of the Kurdish language besides some bilingual and explanatory the Kurdish dictionaries. The results show that there is more convergence in meaning than divergence between the two languages when it comes to the lexeme. One of the reasons is that “head” is used in the English and the Kurdish to express more similar metaphorical purposes other than metonymical purposes.</p> Alan Anwar Hasan , Anjuman M. Sabir Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Educational Implications of Preaching Scenes in the Persian Painting <p>This study deals with the educational implications of the preaching scenes in the Persian painting. It includes four chapters. The first is devoted to the research problem, its importance, need, purpose, limits, and defining its most important terms. The research problem is represented by the following question: What are the educational implications of preaching scenes in Persian painting? The need for this study is evident in the fact that the subject has not been studied in the art space, which justifies addressing it and revealing its analytical data, in order to achieve the desired benefit. It also benefits researchers and art connoisseurs and those interested in aesthetic, artistic and critical studies of Islamic painting in general and Persian in particular. The objective limits of the research were represented by studying the educational implications of the preaching scenes in Persian painting, which was limited to the paintings that included only preaching scenes.</p> <p>The second chapter contains two topics, the first dealt with the style of preaching and its relationship to education, and the second included two axes, the first dealing with the characteristics of Persian painting and the second dealing with the issues of images in the school of Persian painting. The third chapter deals with the research procedures that included the research community of (20) pictures, the research sample of (5) models, the research tool and its validity and stability, research methodology, mathematical and statistical methods, and then analysis of sample samples. The fourth chapter included research results, conclusions, recommendations and proposals, and finally a list of sources, appendices and figures.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anwar Ali Alwan Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Etiquette and Tactics of the University of Bisha’s Students Towards Faculty Members from the Students' Point of View <p>This study aimed to find out the level of practice of the students of the University of Bisha in the art of etiquette towards faculty members from the point of view of their students in the academic year 2018/2019 AD.</p> <p>To achieve the aim of the study, the researcher constructed a questionnaire consisting of (27) items that were distributed in four axes: performance of exams, practice of activities, professional and social relations between the professor and students, and attendance at lectures.</p> <p>The results of the study were as follows: The students of the University of Bisha own and practice the art of etiquette referred to in the study tool with a strong degree of (2.34) on the overall performance.&nbsp; The averages for each field were as follows: (2.62, 2.51,2.16,2.08) respectively (performance of tests, practice of activities, professional and social relations between the professor and students, attending lectures), and all of them indicate that students practice the art of etiquette to varying degrees from one field to another in&nbsp; In all fields, where the field of testing and the field of activities obtained a moderate degree of availability, while the field of social and professional relations, as well as the field of attending the lecture, obtained a strong degree of availability, and a strong degree was available in the practice of etiquette in general.</p> Tamadur Farah Mohammed Idris. Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Mediation Work in Prelude Texts: Prose Collection Books as a Model <p>We have devoted this article to researching the role of introductions and parallel texts. They make us discover the treatment by which a literary work is transformed from non-text to text and institutionalization. The blog for our research was the Selection Prose Books. Our study of the introductions revealed not only the perception of literature for ancient writers bit also the status of a writer, in the literary institution. Furthermore the Parallel texts make the author as a media assistant who has the function of transmission and communication. And it became clear to us, that through introductions and speeches, the Arab writer writes books according to the laws of&nbsp; literary authorship.</p> Hamdi Khalifa Abid Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Contrastive Dichotomies in Rawda al-Hajj Poem In'etaaq: A Study in the Structuralist Approach <p>The researcher intends to discuss structural course which seeks to inspect the text or what are related to its bases are represented by duals which are considered in the same time of the most prominent procedural mechanisms to approach text , to state range of its exploitation or functioning them with form that access to the required aim . So the study was with title : The opposing dualities in the poem – emancipation – study in the light of structural course . It is from two sections, firstly with title&nbsp; : subjective duals and artistic, , two research with title : intellectual duals , then the study was ended by conclusion reached to most important of results as following : These duals show us an image different from image that is given by others . Where took us to large facts , most universal scales inside poetry space which is founded by the poet as response to poetry experience . Structural study was founded in the text as recommendation field that duals by which tend to multiple cultures . Where objective , artful and intellectual duals have a presence in appropriation with text and thought . They depend on distinguished connotations for figures , after that list of references , margins , abstract in Arabic and English.</p> Hazim Fadhil Mohammed Albariz Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Psychological Dimensions of War and its Representation in the Contemporary Iraqi Theatrical Text <p>The researcher seeks to study one of the most important phenomena that humanity has suffered from. War cannot pass as a normal event in affirming the psyche of women of war, especially in Iraq, which is still coming from its impact, and women are paying more for it. Therefore, the research was concerned with studying the psychological dimensions of war women and their representations in the contemporary Iraqi theatrical text. The research problem was determined by the following question: What are the psychological dimensions of women of war and their representations in the contemporary Iraqi theatrical text? As for the importance of the research, it is to shed light on the psychological dimensions of the war women’s personalities by presenting the suffering and forced torture and its impact on the woman’s psyche, as well as presenting her problems and concerns and developing successful solutions to these problems to confirm her active presence at all political, social and economic levels. The terminology was defined as being limited to (psychological dimensions, representations, text, contemporary, women of war). The study also dealt with the psychological behaviors of women in light of the major issues and the psychological dimensions of women of war in the world stage. One of the most important findings of the research is that rape has a significant psychological impact on a woman’s psyche and its various psycho-social dimensions. One of the findings of the research is the call to renounce wars and to reject violence in all its forms against women. As for the proposals, for the purposes of research integration, the researcher sees the need to pay attention to completing the study in the following area: Study the anthropological-sociological dimensions of war women in Iraqi theater performances.</p> Hameed Ali Hassoun Al-Zubeidi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Studying Sanaa Shaalan’s Novel "I Adore Myself" with Reference to Goldmann's Genetic Structuralism <p>Goldmann's Genetic Structuralism method is one of the analytical-literary methods that addresses the social subjects of a society which characteristics are presented by the Novel. According to Goldmann's theory, the study of a literary work should not be based only on significant structures, but it should contain social subjects that express individual’s worldview about matters. In this article, we study the novel "I love myself" based on Goldmann's genetic method of structuralism and explain the worldview of social groups in a society that was described in this novel by the author Dr. Sanaa Shaalan. Based on analytic-descriptive method, the novel was analyzed according to Goldmann genetic structuralism approach that include perception and interpretation, significant structures, primal consciousness and 2nd ary consciousness, worldview and collective consciousness. And the result of this study is that the author, through the protagonist of the novel, Shams, tries to express the divine worldview of a group of people in the society that she, herself represents, and to fight against the material worldview of the materialists. And through her divine worldview, the novelist tries to prove the existence of the pure and glorious God behind the creation of the universe, to those who deny it.</p> Naeem Amouri, Masoumeh Marei Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Environment Representations in the Contemporary European Art <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The current research on the theme of "Environment Representations in Modern European Art" includes four chapters. The first chapter deals with the problem of research, which is summarized in the possibility of answering the following question: What was the environment in the modern European configuration? The chapter also includes a reference to the importance of research and the need for it, and the definition of the most important terms. This chapter also includes the objective of the research: (Identifying the representations of the environment in contemporary European art). This chapter also includes the limits of research by studying the works of art (products of contemporary art) Time (1892-1972).</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The second chapter was devoted to the theoretical framework and the most important indicators, which included two papers, the first of which was the investigation of "environmental representations in the arts of modernity". The third chapter included the research procedures during which the 25 research society was defined, the sample of the research and its method of selection with the sample analysis tool and the definition of the research methodology (the descriptive approach) And then analyze the sample of the research consists of (4) models, while Chapter IV is devoted to review the findings, conclusions and recommendations, and the most important results:</p> <p>- Some natural environmental vocabulary showed a simulation of a realistic form or a close relative, as in Model 4, and others appeared in a simple and abstract manner as in the samples (1, 2, 3).</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; Followed by the recommendations and proposals, the list of sources and references, and then the annexes, the abstract and the title in English.</p> Waad Muhammad Hassouni Al-Obaidi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Crime of Polluting Canals in the Iraqi Penal Code <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>&nbsp;The crime of polluting canals is one of the new crimes that know a terrible and dangerous spread that threatens the world, especially Iraq as it is one of the agricultural countries and enjoys different water media, as the violations practiced on the water environment by environmental criminals reached their climax with the entry of man into the era of industry, exploration and technology, so this legal study came to highlight Shedding light on the legal mechanisms guaranteeing the fight against crimes affecting canals, especially pollution, by studying the general provisions of the crime of polluting canals, by highlighting the privacy that distinguishes the latter from traditional crimes, and then standing on the penal means decided by the Iraqi legislator in the penal code to confront the crime of polluting canals</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Zainab Hamid Abbas AL-Marzoog Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Connotation of “Sex” in Ghanem Al-Dabbagh’s Stories <p>&nbsp;The writer Ghanem Al-Dabbagh showed his fondness for the literary side in his early years, which established him from a young age, the narrative tendency, helped him in that, and his passion for external reading. His wonderful story collections were distinguished by their ability to penetrate into the interior of the human psyche and probe its hidden components. Sex in his stories formed an important focus of his stories, as sex is small paintings that the storyteller portrayed through what his memory preserved from early childhood, to express to us some of what is produced by these neighborhoods Popularity with all the values and traditions it represents and what society knows about in terms of its life.</p> <p>&nbsp;Ghanem Al-Dabbagh, in his collection of stories, is a narrator who combines gender and homeland, as his connotation of sex is an expression of the political disappointment of the people, and a big difference between the search for women and the search for something. And women and the people, so he used them to uproot all the roots of corruption, tyranny and intellectual terrorism of all kinds.</p> Aziz Latif Nahi Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Corrective Strategies of Iraqi Learners of Foreign Languages <p>Communications in a foreign language entail knowledge of formal and functional aspects. The formal levels of morphology, syntax and semantics have been focused on whereas the functional one has not usually been given its due concern. As such, learners may resort to their native language reservoir to communicate and convey meanings in the foreign language. This paper endeavors to find out if the Iraqi learners of foreign languages (Turkish and English) are aware of the pragmatic level of linguistic analysis. More specifically, it tries to specify the linguistic realizations of the speech act of correction. It sets for itself the task of answering the following question: what are the corrective strategies those learners may utilize to realize the speech act of correction in terms of power- status differences? Various&nbsp; strategies are hypothesized to be found whether direct or indirect. To achieve the aim and test the hypothesis, a discourse completion test is delivered to forty learners of each language at the College of Languages, University of Baghdad for the academic year 2019-2020 to elicit these strategies. The analysis manifests explicit and implicit strategies which verifies the set hypothesis. This study is hoped to be valuable for those interested in pragmatic research and teaching foreign languages.</p> Wafaa Sahib Mehdi, Bushra Taher Jebur Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Employment of Animal Form and its Implications in Iraqi Contemporary Ceramic Sculpture <p>The researcher was interested in studying the employment of the animal form and its semantic dimensions in contemporary Iraqi ceramic sculpture, which was divided into four detective, where the first season concerned with the research problem and its importance, clarification of its objectives and its limits, and also included defining important terms in the research. As for the second season, it included the theoretical framework, which contained two topics: The first topic, the conceptual significance. The second topic the significance of the animal body in ancient times, As for the third season, through which the researcher got acquainted with the largest possible number of artistic works, which is a sample of the research community, As for the fourth season, which is to reach important conclusions and conclusions in the emergence of ideas and indications in the animal body, which showed different methods and different contents with different measurements, which were subsequently reflected on their ideas and contents.In the end,the researcher mentioned a set of recommendations and proposals.</p> <p>The researcher reached a set of results based on the aforementioned analysis of samples, in addition to what was stated by the theoretical framework, as follows:</p> <ol> <li class="show">Some artists have taken (the animal form) as an axis or as a symbol for a special case in some cases mainly in artistic formation as a semantic expression around which some connotations have crystallized through the compositional .</li> <li class="show">The animal form was not defined in a specific formula, but rather took several aspects of representation, so we see it centered between semi-real and unrealistic and sometimes pure abstraction and this depends on what is stored in the artist’s mental vision and how to form the treatment method.</li> </ol> <p>And <strong>Conclusions:</strong></p> <ol> <li class="show">Potters relied in their representation of the animal form on a multiplicity of execution techniques, between raku, glossy and matt glass, and a multiplicity of color,giving each indication and subject matter of technical choice and a specific color.</li> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> Noor AlHuda Abd AlKareem Hani Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Currency of Foreign Movements and their Impact on Cash Circulation in the Mountains Region from the 3rd to 5th Hijri Centuries <p>The mountains region is one of the areas where the currency is more frequent, given that the cities of the region have been exposed to many invasions. Therefore, the research deals with this region for its geographical, political and economic importance, stressing the economic aspect, with regard to the money circulating in this region, for its knowledge, and knowledge of the most important cities in which the money was minted. The research reached the borders of the Buyid and Seljuk coins, which were imposed on the cities of the region, because these countries occupied the region, in addition to the presence of local currencies minted by the princes of the cities of the region. The Abbasid money had a presence in the cities of the region, which was used by the princes of the region's cities as a pretext to legitimize their rule over the cities of the region. Gold was predominantly silver in the mountain region, and dealings were done in dirhams, and dinars in the process of trade exchange. The beating houses spread in the cities of the mountain region, clearly, due to the interest of city princes in them. The weight of the currencies varied from one place to another, according to the political and economic situation that prevailed in the cities of the region.</p> Alaa Habib Abd Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000