Determination of Nickel Concentration in the Breast Milk of Lactating Mothers Living In Hilla City, Babylon, Iraq

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Ishtar Munim Nassir Abaas Noor Al-Sharify Hasan Alwan Baiee



Human milk is the only source of food for infants during the first four to five months of their life. Some chemicals compood can be transferred from the body stores and from blood into the breast milk of a lactating mother.


      To determining and measurements of Nickel leval the human milk and to identify the associations of certain potential variables with the concentrations of these heavy metals.

Subjects and Methods

       This is a cross-sectional study carried included a milk test by a randomly selected (68) women apparently healthy lactating women, who attended Babylon  Maternity & children hospital in Al – Hilla city during the period mid of February through the end of April 2012. Breast milk was collected and analyzed to detect and measure Nickel using atomic absorption. A questionnaire paper was prepared to recorded the demographic variables. Weights and heights were measured to calculate the Body Mass Index.


      This study revealed that the mean concentrations of Nickel in the human milk was (23.83±15.57 ppb) which was remarkably high as compared with the concentrations reported by other studies done in other countries. The study shows that there was a statistically significant association (p<0.0s) between  the high concentrations of  Nickel and the followings associates ; living in urban regions ,living near highways , living near industrial regions and drinking river or tap water, being younger (<3oyears of  age) or heaver increase weight and being cigarettes smokers. The prevalence rates of lactating mothers with abnormal concentrations of was 99%and 93% respectively indicating the serious environmental pollution in Hilla city.


       Breast milk of lactating mothers in Hilla city is abnormally contaminated with; Nickel this public health problem need to be addressed.


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How to Cite
I. Nassir, A. Al-Sharify, and H. Baiee, “Determination of Nickel Concentration in the Breast Milk of Lactating Mothers Living In Hilla City, Babylon, Iraq”, JUBPAS, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 84 - 91, Oct. 2018.