JOURNAL OF UNIVERSITY OF BABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences 2020-09-23T09:42:54+00:00 Prof. Dr. Wesam Bhaya Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>OURNAL of <strong>U</strong>NIVERSITY of <strong>B</strong>ABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences, (<span style="color: #008000;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon for Pure and Applied Sciences in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong> is a scientific peer-reviewed open access journal publishing high-quality research and review papers at the forefront of modern research describing significant developments in Pure and Applied Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Online ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>2312-8135</strong></span></a></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Print ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>1992-0652</strong></span></a></span></p> Image Processing Technique by Multi Scale Retinex Algorithm to Flame Characteristics Investigation 2020-09-06T15:02:22+00:00 Maysoon Khazaal Abbas Maaroof <p>&nbsp;Image processing algorithms was more effected in modern processes to evaluate the flame characteristics such as height, length and thickness by taking digital image for flame by high speed camera for three different fuel types diesel, biodiesel and biofuel of jet flame by depend upon more variables effect such as mass flow rate, diameter of nozzle and compressed pressure. We will be applying two different mathematical methods in order to measuring some characteristics of diffusion flame. Where one depend upon Wiens distribution of a black body with MSR math-lab processing and another depend upon the intensity of the flame. These operations target to enhancing the exactitude of image segmentation and resolution. Secondly, feature extractions of the visible and infrared line images are performed, and the recognition of the target image is further completed. Finally, image fusion is performed by weighted averaging of the targets detected by visible light and infrared images The image properties are investigating by increase the knowledge of the color and resolution of digital image and enhancement the origin image by applying the concern algorithm and less the noise. The results show that the algorithm of retinex is suitable to analysis the digital image and not distortions on it .</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Effect of Aeromonas Hydrofila on Interleukin 10 Gene Expression of Liver, Spleen and Muscle Tissue in Common Carp Fish 2020-09-09T08:37:36+00:00 Abeer M.J Muthana S. Al-Azawi Bashar Abdul-Hussain Al-Sa'adi <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The study was conducted in the laboratory of fish belonging to the Department of Animal Production at the Technical College of Musayyib for the period from February 23 to March 16/2019 , the experiment included four treatments, namely control treatment (t1) and salt group (t2) and live bacteria group (t3) and killed bacteria group (t4), by 20 A common carp <em>Caprinus Carpio</em> fish per treatment.the aim of the study was to identify the effect of bacterial infection in the gene expression of the gene IL-10 and compare this expression between three tissues, namely liver, spleen and muscle tissue .Regarding the gene expression of the IL-10 gene, the treatment of live bacteria (t3) showed the highest gene expression compared to the rest of the liver, but it But it made little difference with the B-actin gene (23.71). In the spleen, the gene expression of the IL-10 gene was highest in the fourth treatment (t4) (23.29), but it was lower than the comparison gene B-actin (25.76) for the same treatment. In muscular tissue, the gene expression of IL-10 was higher in the control treatment (t1) compared to the rest of the treatments, but Gene expression was the least in the comparison gene β-actin compared to the rest of the treatments. Regarding the relative expression of the IL-10 gene (relative to the comparison gene and control treatment) in the liver, the live bacterial treatment (t3) recorded the highest relative expression of the IL-10 gene (728.6) followed by the treatment of the killed bacteria (t4) (22.86) by a highly difference from Salt (t2) (1.16)&nbsp; . in the spleen, the treatment of the bacteria killed (t4) was the highest relative expression (2112.8) by a highly difference with the second and third treatments (15.5,3.09 respectively). In muscle tissue,&nbsp; the relative expression of the IL-10 gene in second, third and fourth treatments were lowest than in the control treatment relative to the β-actin gene. We conclude that the highest expression of the IL-10 gene appeared in the liver when bacterial infection occurred and was not the case in the spleen and muscle tissue.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Effect of using Imported and Local Premixes on some Blood Parameters of Broiler 2020-09-10T05:53:25+00:00 Mohammed E. Abdulnabi Jameel S. Lazim <p>This study had been conducted to investigate the effect of using premix that been locally mixed by different concentrations (Low , Standard and high) of excellent quality (used in starter and grower rations) and normal which is used in the finisher as alternative for foreign premix (provimi , excellent and normal) with comparison of their effect on some blood parameters of broilers.</p> <p>Total number of 120, one day old broiler chicks , Ross 308 were allotted randomly on 4 equal treatments , each treatment included 30 chicks and each treatment included 2 replicates (15 chick/ replicate). Chicks fed on rations according to ages of chicks (starter, grower and finisher) in which 2.5 % of one premix added in the experiment which were as follow :</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Treatment 1 (T<sub>1</sub>) in which the foreign premix was mixed as an imported one, provimi. Meanwhile, the other treatments T<sub>2</sub> , T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>4</sub> in which the local premix was mixed by 3 concentrations (low, standard and high) respectively.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Mixing and preparation of rations was done in Al – Ghadder laboratory and factory in Al – Mahweel/ Babylon by depending on Best mix program, 2018 according to birds requirement, Ross 308 by a special manual 2014.</p> <p>Blood samples were collected from birds at 28 and 33 days in all treatments.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Results revealed significant variations (P&lt;0.05) between treatments in hemoglobin , lymphocyte numbers, total protein and blood glucose with a highly significant effect (P&lt;0.01) for liver enzymes which include AST and ALT.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Meanwhile, there were no variation in other blood parameter such as PCV, numbers of Heterophils&nbsp; and Heterophils / Lymphocyts ratio.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The best results were recoded for T<sub>4</sub> (local premix of high concentrations) in most of studied blood parameters for both two blood collections (28 and 33 days of age of chicks). Which were cellular or biochemical then T<sub>1</sub> (provimi imported premix). The lowest similar levels were characterized by T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>3</sub> which were local premix, low and standard respectively.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Studying Changes in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for Cover in the Area of Aleppo Mountain (Afrin) in Period between (2010-2016) 2020-09-10T08:31:01+00:00 Mohammad Hamzi Istanbuly Ali Thabeet <p>The aim of this research was to study the current state of the forests in Aleppo's mountain and monitoring the change it has achieved, using NDVI during 2010-2016.</p> <p>The results of the study showed that the change in the forest cover of the pine (<em>Pinus brutia</em> Ten) and oak (<em>Quercus calliprinos</em> Webb<em>)</em> in Aleppo's Mountain were significant in the years (2010, 2011, 2013, 2014, 2015 &amp; 2016), and for all the years of study. The Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) showed generally low value of plants cover not exceeding 0.5.The highest NDVI values were in 2015 and the lowest value for both years 2010-2016 this is similar to <em>Quercus calliprinos </em>Webb<em>.</em> This study showed that this approach (NDVI) is a powerful and useful method of monitoring and forest cover managing.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Pathogenic Bacteria in Foods of Animal Origin Source and their Resistance to Many Drugs: Risk Factors and Attempt to Avoid them 2020-09-10T08:40:45+00:00 Lubna Abdulazeem Rana A. Ghaleb Farah Tareq Al-Alaq <p>Most of the foodborne microbial diseases are linked to foods of animal origin such as milk, meat, and poultry usually have toxic and infectious nature, caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites and chemical materials that inter to the human body by contaminated food and water. Nowadays, the presence of (MDR) multi-drug resistant&nbsp; pathogens in foods is becoming an increasingly concern about public health in all worldwide due to the excess of antimicrobial drugs in the feed of animal. The MDR pathogens can enter in to the food chain and formation a big danger to both animals and consumers. MDR pathogens causing infections are no care due to their resistance to various type of antibiotics, primarily cephalosporin and carbapenems and to their (ESBL)- extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing capability. In addition, foods of animal origin and environments related to the food can be likely vehicles and spreading of gene of multi-drug resistance, which accelerates the expansion of global antibiotic resistance. This paper reviews the role of animal origin food as a vehicle for MDR pathogens, stressing the contribution processes of food, environments, and storage conditions in spread and reduction of (AMRs) antimicrobial resistances. Controlling on growth of MDR microorganisms and limiting the transmission/expression of AMR genes in the ecosystems of food could be an effective reducing pathway, putting the focusing efforts on food processes as a part of the AMR in foods. Biological protective cultures are also used as a promising and environmentally friendly technic to reduce the incidence of MDR pathogens, though caution is taken as microbial starters and probiotics can also carry AMR. Finally, applying Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) and predictive microbiology, within a Risk Assessment framework, is key to get insight into those mechanisms and conditions along the food chain favoring or reducing AMR.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Molecular and Immunological Study for Detection of BK Human Polyoma Virus in Patient with Hemorrhagic Cystitis in some Iraq People 2020-09-10T08:53:54+00:00 Faiz Kamel Al-Salami Ghanim Aboud Al-Mola <p>Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is considering one of the important complications in lower urinary tract hematuria, hemorrhage and dysuria are most common symptom .In hemorrhagic cystitis, short-term hematuria can also be seen in bladder infections as a result of viral infection. Viral cystitis represents another form of non-bacterial urinary tract infection affected adult and children. Human polyomavirus BK type I and V, Adenovirus types 21 and 11 and CMV viruses also can be cause of hemorrhagic cystitis. The aim of the present study work was to find out the relation of polyoma virus BKVS with acute syndrome consists of hematuria and studying the sequence and molecular genotyping of such virus with certain immunological factors among infected patients. This study was performed on two hundred and thirty bloody urine and blood specimens were collected from patients that &nbsp;were selected to eliminate other causes of hematuria, the patients group comprised 170 male and 60 female age group 6 -65 years.&nbsp; Patient samples (Urine and serum) were collected for detection of Human polyoma virus (BKVS) by using conventional PCR technique and immunological parameters. All bloody urine cultured on ordinary media to differentiate between viral and bacterial infection. The result of&nbsp; current &nbsp;study was found that 154 samples (67%) have positive bacterial culture which excluded and the other 76 samples(33%) give negative bacterial culture were included as suspected&nbsp; a viral cause of hematuria. All negative culture cases was classified &nbsp;as&nbsp; 4(5.26%) patients with glomerulonephritis ,15 (19.73%) chronic renal failure,14(18.42%)urinary tract infection ,27(35.5%) kidney transplantation ,16(21.5%) cystitis. The age range distribution mostly in age group more than 50 years at 21 (27.6 %) as higher percent in comparison with other age groups as well as the male percentage higher than female. All urine patients 76 with 25 urines samples of control were analyzed by Convention PCR for detection BVS. It was found only 9(11.8%) as a positive result. There were different immunological parameters used to evaluate function immune system such as IFN-α, IFN-ɤ, TNF-α, CD4 and CD8, to maintain the disease status. The result of IFN-α IFN-ɤ, CD4, CD8 showed a higher significant level in comparison with control samples at P value (&lt; 0.05), while the ‘result of TNF-α showed no significant difference in comparison with control. It is&nbsp; noted that the result of CD4 and CD8 in relation to age group showed that the age &gt; 50 years have higher level of infection&nbsp; than other. The percentage of BKVS is more dominant in adult age in both sexes, mostly at age more than 50 years. Bioinformatics was used for specific primers designed from the data base sequence information, for capsid protein genes (vp1, and agno) genes in (NCBI) and Sequencing of DNA And Sequencing analysis were used to diagnosis genes of BKVS .</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: This study showed that the detection of Human polyoma virus in bloody urine could be applicable in hospitals laboratories by rapid decony cell.&nbsp; It&nbsp; reported the application of qPCR assay for rapid specific and highly sensitive for confirmative detection of BKVS as causative agents in hemorrhagic cystitis. The elevation level of immunological&nbsp; factors(CD4,CD8,TNF-α,IFN-α and IFN-ɤ) act as monitor the&nbsp; immune response&nbsp; to effectiveness of BK virus on Hemorrhagic cystitis&nbsp; patients&nbsp; by ELISA assay. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis reported that&nbsp; Baghdad and Al-Najaf population are infected with hemorrhagic cystitis induced by BKVS is more predominantly with newly genotype.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Data Hiding Based DNA Issues: A Review 2020-09-15T06:13:24+00:00 Sahar Adill Kadhum <p>Security of Information are a key concern, particularly with the extension growth of internet usage. This growth comes the incidents of unauthorized access which are countered by the use of varied secure communication techniques, namely; cryptography and data hiding. More recent trends are concerned with DNA used for cryptography and data hiding as a carrier exploiting its bio-molecular properties. This paper provides a review about published DNA based data hiding techniques using the DNA as a safeguard to critical data that transmitted on an insecure channel, to find out the strength and weaknesses points of them. This will help the future research in designing of more efficient and secure data hiding techniques-based DNA.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Fuzzy Order Convergence of Double Sequences in Fuzzy Riesz Spaces 2020-09-15T06:22:10+00:00 Shatha Abdul-Hussein Kadhum <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In this paper, we introduce the concepts of fuzzy order convergence of double sequence, also define a new type of convergence, that is, &nbsp;Convergence and &nbsp;Cauchy of double sequence in fuzzy Riesz space and then prove some interesting results related to these notions.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Analysis Some Risk Factors on Brain Cancer Disease by Using Factor Analysis 2020-09-15T06:36:11+00:00 Roqia Abdulqadir Jamel <p>&nbsp; Brain cancer is the&nbsp;cancer&nbsp;of the central information-processing center of the body.&nbsp;&nbsp;Brain tumour can be malignant or benign, and can occur at any age. Only malignant&nbsp;tumors&nbsp;are cancerous. A primary brain tumor initially forms in the&nbsp;brain&nbsp;tissue. In addition, the aim of this study is to investigate the most important factors affecting on the brain cancer and identify the demographic of the disease of brain cancer, then factor analysis has been used to identify factors affecting brain cancer, The methods of this study was used descriptive statistics and factor analysis, then Factor Analysis (FA) is an exploratory technique applied to a set of observed variables that seeks to find underlying factors (subsets of variables) from which the observed variables were generated. Moreover, recorded data for brain cancer were taken from Hiwa Hospital in Sulaymaniyah Governorate during the period of (2018 to 2020). 150 patients and 8 variables were included in the study. After analysis study detected from factor which are explain 59.036% of the variance, and the result identified three factors such that,1<sup>st</sup>Factor: This factor containing these variables (Age, Weight) by total variance 21.400%,&nbsp; 2<sup>nd</sup>Factor: This factor containing these variables (Gender, Smoking and Occupation) by total variance 20.665%, 3<sup>rd</sup>Factor: This factor containing the variable (Governorate, Blood type and Drinking) by total variance 16.971%, The papers limitation is including lack of variables taken for brain cancer and the number of samples was insufficient. Finally, the rate of 59.036% aforementioned variables influence on the brain cancer.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon The Role of Streptococcus mutans and Pathogenesis in the Oral cavity 2020-09-15T06:41:11+00:00 Nebras N. Al –Dabagh Yasser Amer Ibrahim Lamya Abdulkhaleq Saeed <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The oral cavity is a complex environment system where certain bacteria coexist with human chemical compounds. However, changes in the natural structure of the bacteria may lead to the onset of oral disease, such as periodontitis and tooth decay. A number of different environments exist in the human oral cavity, colonized by more than 600 types of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, but only a limited number of these types can cause tooth infection .</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; The purpose from this study&nbsp; is an attempt to establish which characteristics associated with biofilm formation—virulence determinants of <em>S. mutans</em>—are responsible for the development of dental caries</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; The review concluded the bacterial components that contribute to each of the major virulence properties and these are work together in the development of dental caries .</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Effect of Auxin 2,4-D and NAA on Induction Callus and Adventitious Shoots and Roots regeneration from half Shoot Tips Culture of white ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Roscoe) 2020-09-15T06:51:35+00:00 Huda A. Al-Taha Abdulelah A. Al-Mayah Widad A. Abd Al-Behadili <p><strong>This study was conducted in plant tissue culture laboratory of Agriculture College, Basrah university, Iraq during the period 2018-2019. The aims of this study were to find out the effect of different concentration of two auxin 2,4-D and NAA to induce the callus and regeneration of adventitious shoots and roots of <em>Zingiber officinale</em> Rosc. white via culture of half shoots tips. Results of the present study revealed that medium of MS containing 1.0 mg.l<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp; 2,4-D + 0.5 mg.l<sup>-1 </sup>BA + 500 mg.l<sup>-1</sup> PVP caused primary callus formation (100%) with high diameter, fresh and dry weight of callus (2.26 cm, 1.95 mg and 0.12 mg); respectively. Results also showed that MS medium containing 30.0 mg.l<sup>-1</sup> + 3 mg.l<sup>-1</sup> 2ip + 500 mg.l<sup>-1</sup> PVP caused the higher primary callus formation (100%) within (11.33 days) and a higher diameter, fresh and dry weight of callus (2.50 cm , 0.86 mg and 0.14 mg); respectively. However adventitious roots were regenerated from primary callus in all concentration of NAA, whereas the medium MS containing 10.0 mg.l<sup>-1</sup> NAA was gave the highest number and length of roots (13.33 root .callus and 2.83cm).</strong> <strong>When the activated charcoal (500 mg.l<sup>-1</sup>) was replaced by PVP in the same medium containing 30.0 mg.l<sup>-1</sup> NAA response was found at the end of the incubation period, small green adventitious shoots and white roots were regenerated.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Behçet’s Disease : A Clinical Review 2020-09-15T07:00:43+00:00 Hawraa Sabah Al-Musawi Israa Luay AL-jaryan Zainab A. Tolaifeh <p>Behcet’s disease (BD) is a rare relapsing systemic inflammatory disorder with a chronic, relapsing-remitting course of unknown etiology, current knowledge suggests that BD could follow an autoimmune process triggered by an infectious or environmental agent in genetically predisposed individuals. BD has been hallmarked predominantly by oral aphthosis, genital ulcers, and chronic relapsing bilateral uveitis, all of which represent the “stigmata” of disease. However, many other organs including the vascular, neurological, musculoskeletal, and gastrointestinal systems can be affected. BD occurs most frequently in Eurasian populations along the ancient trading route known as the “Silk Road” which extends from eastern Asia to the Mediterranean basin. The diagnosis of BD is only supported by clinical criteria and requires the exclusion of other diagnoses based on clinical presentation. There are no pathognomonic laboratorial findings of BD. This rare disease often leads to blindness and fatal systemic involvement. Main causes of death include major vessel disease and central nervous system involvement. Corticosteroids are commonly used to treat clinical manifestations of BD in combination with immunosuppressant drugs. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-blocking agents such as Infliximab, Etanercept, and Adalimumab have been reported to have success in patients with BD.&nbsp;</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Studying 124-128Ba Transitional nuclei in the IBM Framework 2020-09-17T09:35:06+00:00 Heiyam Najy Hady Mohsin Kadhim Muttalb <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; Many properties of nuclear structure for even-even &nbsp;isotopes have been investigated with &nbsp;and &nbsp;.They examined carefully with benefit from continuously updating of nuclear decay schemes. Low-lying energy levels for even-even positive parity states, mixed symmetry states (MSS), reduced electric quadruple transitions probabilities , branching ratios, reduced magnetic dipole transitions probability , &nbsp;ratio, reduced electric monopole transitions probability &nbsp;and mixing ratio &nbsp;and potential energy surface&nbsp; have been studied.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; In the framework of &nbsp;noted the competition between the two parameters ( &nbsp;and ) in <sup>124-128</sup>Ba isotopes were the increases&nbsp; of a<sub>0</sub> associated with decreases of a<sub>2</sub> which mean that the γ-unstable features were continuous increases with opposite of rotational properties , in IBM-2 χ<sub>π</sub> and χ<sub>ν</sub> were (-1.3 and&nbsp; around 0.7) which signified similarity&nbsp; with IBM-1 expected.<sup> 124-128</sup>Ba isotopes described to be transitional nuclei , transitional between SU(3) and O(6) features.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Generalization of Counter Example of B. AlSPACH 2020-09-22T05:47:59+00:00 Nihad Abdeljalil Majeed <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;In this work, I generalize the counter – example given by B – Alspach. And I find that there exists an infinity number of tournaments which is point – symmetric, but not rotation. <strong>[1]</strong></p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Neutrosophic Logic as an Alternative to Treat Missing Values in Calculating the Stability of Cronbach's Alpha for Psychological and Achievement Tests 2020-09-22T06:24:14+00:00 Hiba Dodouh <p>The research aims to use the Neutrosophic Logic, which adopts the logic of non-determinants, in treating the missing values in educational and psychology scales and tests, and to derive the necessary equations for the Cronbach's Alpha consistency equation</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon Digital economy Visions and Prospects Arab Countries Case Study 2020-09-23T09:42:54+00:00 Mohammed Madlool Ali <p>The digital economy became the model global economy as the last stage for the devolvement of the economy and it considers as a result of using the information technology in different economic fields,&nbsp; such as what happened in all our life activities. The growth, integration, and sophistication of information technology and communications is changing our society and economy. Consumers now routinely use computer networks to identify sellers, evaluate products and services, compare prices, and extra market leverage. Business use networks even more extensively to conduct and re-engineer production processes , streamline procurement presses , reach new customer and manage internal operation.</p> 2020-09-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon