JOURNAL OF UNIVERSITY OF BABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>OURNAL of <strong>U</strong>NIVERSITY of <strong>B</strong>ABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences, (<span style="color: #008000;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon for Pure and Applied Sciences in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong> is a scientific peer-reviewed open access journal publishing high-quality research and review papers at the forefront of modern research describing significant developments in Pure and Applied Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Online ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>2312-8135</strong></span></a></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Print ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>1992-0652</strong></span></a></span></p> University of Babylon en-US JOURNAL OF UNIVERSITY OF BABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences 1992-0652 Developing a Predictive Health Care System for Diabetes Diagnosis as a Machine Learning-Based Web Service <p>Background:</p> <p>Diabetes is one of the dangerous and silent illnesses that cause sudden death. It can occur at any time and may cause great injury to the organs of the body or damage them completely. So, we must investigate this disease at the beginning of its appearance and before it gets hard to treat. With the fast advancement of Machine Learning (ML), these approaches enhanced the efficiency of decision processes in a wide range of applications, including medical diagnostics.</p> <p>Materials and Methods:</p> <p>In this paper, we chose a medical application field and used supervised machine learning algorithms to construct a high-accuracy prediction model for diabetes in humans at an early stage, before it progresses to the point of morbidity or fatality. The suggested model can extract hidden knowledge from diabetes-related data gathered from the Kaggle machine learning repository. We utilize Microsoft Azure ML Studio to model these ML algorithms.</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>This study will benefit the health industry by offering users an online tool (i.e., web service) that allows them to input data and receive results that predict whether or not the person has diabetes. As a result, prior knowledge and ongoing monitoring of their diabetic health state will lower the risk of complications, morbidity, and death caused by this illness. After running numerous experiments with the classifier models to evaluate the proposed system, several performance indicators, including Recall, Precision, Accuracy, and f1-score, are measured for comparison. Based on the classification output, it was determined that Decision Forest is a better strategy and produces better results than the other ML approaches.</p> <p>Conclusion:</p> <p>The suggested system's key contribution is to improve healthcare quality, minimize hospitalizations, and lower the high expenditures of healthcare and drugs.&nbsp;</p> Rasha Ali Abdoul Raheem Ali Kadhum M. Al-Qurabat Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 1 32 Statistical Study for the Energy Resolution of the Cesium Source Using the NaI(Tl) Detector <p>To investigate the statistical nature of gamma-ray decay, the energy resolution of the <sup>137</sup>Cs source spectrum was investigated using the statistical programming language R, as well as the moderation and homogeneity test for the data, as well as the Pearson correlation coefficient test and the linear regression test. It was observed that the investigated random variables had no strong statistical link, and that the random mean of the samples differs slightly from the expected mean for same variables using same statistical distribution.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;Materials and Methods:</p> <p>In this study, a scintillation detector of iodide sodium activated with thallium NaI(Tl) measuring (200) samples of <sup>137</sup>Cs spectrum at (200 sec) time for each spectrum and a distance is(7cm) between the radioactive source and the detector . The R programming language was used in calculating the statistical applications represented by the mean, median, variance and standard deviation, also the normality tests and homogeneity of variances tests were calculated by the R programming language, it had been found that all the models studied were homogeneous and that most of the models were not follow to a normal distribution.</p> <p>Conclusions:</p> <p>In this study, statistical distributions and statistical software were used, and it was revealed to the following:</p> <p>1-The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test revealed that the data in the sampling random analysis are distributed in a regular manner.</p> <p>2-The R.E. of the spectrum data was found to follow a normal distribution in a Shapiro test, depending on the p. value.</p> <p>3-In the Q.Q. Normal Test, the points in R.E are applied in a straight line, indicating that the data is homogeneous.</p> <p>4-Using the linear regression test, it was determined that the analyzed random variables have no statistically significant correlation.</p> <p>5-It was discovered that the analyzed samples (R.E) follow a normal distribution using the T-Test.</p> <p>6-The third group in Pearson correlation was less than zero, while the rest of the groups were near zero, with the first and second groups having negative values, indicating that the investigated variables have a weak inverse link. The third group had a positive correlation value, indicating that the 137Cs source's R.E. had increased.</p> Inaam H. Khadim Khalid Hussain Hatif Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 33 46 Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori: An Overview of Bacterial Virulence Agents and the Mechanism of Occurrence Disease <p><em>Helicobacter pylori</em> is believed to be a main reason of stomach diseases in addition to the occurrence of infections that may end in cancer, there may be new virulence factors and as a result of the genetic analysis of this bacteria, which shows a wide view of the genome of this bacteria, so we hope to discover a new generation of genetic sequencers to verify the presence of new virulence agents. Studying the function of virulence factors possessed by <em>H. pylori</em> that increase its susceptibility to disease will lead to the possibility of developing treatments and vaccines. This review focuses on virulence factors and their role within pathogenesis of <em>H. pylori</em> contagion. This review contributes for development about new prevention and treatment methods based on an understanding of the role of cagA, vacA, ureE-H, and ureI proteins in increasing the susceptibility of bacteria to colonize the host digestive system in addition cause damage of host tissue.</p> Huda Abbas Mohammed Zahraa Hussein Obaid Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 47 53 John-Teller Distortion in Octahedral hexaaquacopper (II) Transition for S=1/2, d9 Metal Complex <p>Jahn–Teller effect (JTE) describe how specific electrons distributions induce geometric deformation in molecules or ions. The distortion of Jahn–Teller (JT) takes place because of the uneven occupation of orbitals with the identical energies is disapproving. To prevent such inappropriate&nbsp;electronic arrangements, molecules distort (lose regularity), causing these orbitals to become non-degenerate. This distortion is most frequently seen in octahedral compounds, at which two axial bonds could be squeezed (compressed) or extend (elongated), leading to bond lengths that the different from equator bonds. The degeneracy of electronic states really isn’t accurately measured, but it would be measured precisely by the disparity in a concentration of electron among metal and the ligands upon on axil direction. The density functional theory has been used to calculate bond length in both cases &nbsp;geometry for , &nbsp;octahedral metal-complexes, the majority ordinary mechanism of distortion is elongation (z-out). In perfectly octahedral complexes deformation, the &nbsp;orbitals energy is changed more than the &nbsp;orbitals energy, causing elongation z-out distortion. The d-levels energy would be splitting in a ligand field throughout transition metal centers can frequently result in degenerate electron configurations that are subject to Jahn–Teller effects. In six-coordinate complexes of copper II ions. It is also significant in fewer regular oxidation levels of other transition ions with that &nbsp;count.</p> Yadgar Hussein Shwan Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 54 62 Covid-19 Vaccines in Iraq <p>The emergence of the new corona virus ("SARS-CoV-2") in the late 2019 threatened the whole world and scientists throughout the word began searching for biological activities of the virus , During an unprecedented record period that did not exceed one year, &nbsp;scientists were able to develop a number of safe and effective vaccines &nbsp;, which have been tested on tens of thousands of volunteers around the world. &nbsp;Different companies prepared many vaccines and few of them get emergency approval by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used in different countries. The aim of the current study is to describe COVID 19 vaccines, structures, efficacy and safety&nbsp; used in Iraq. Three vaccines (Pfizer,Biontech vaccine, AstraZenica,Oxford vaccine and Sinopharm,vaccine) are used to vaccinate people. All used vaccines showed variable effectiveness with different antibody titers. The ideal vaccine should be cheap, prophylactic, prevent congenital abnormalities, control the disease and eradicate it and be effective at all ages, at different health conditions and its effect is its effect lasts for a long time.</p> Sura M.Y. Al-Taee Amina G.O. Al-Ani Mohammad M. Salih Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 63 73 Numerical Solutions of the Coupled Kortweg-de Vries Systems <p>A Homotopy analytical method (HAM) for solving nonlinear coupled Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) system is presented. The HAM contains an assistant parameter, which gives a helpful manner of controlling the merging locale of the arrangements. We will comparison exact solution with numerical results. This technique provides an efficient and effectives approximate analytical solution with high accuracy appeared graphically in figures demonstrate and affirm the tall precision and outlining the productivity and straightforwardness of the strategy.</p> Rebwar S. Muhammad Faraidun K. Hamasalh Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 74 88 Slope Stability Evaluation of Euphrates Out Crops at Najaf Governorate-Center of Iraq: Analysis Study <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In this study the stability of the rock has been evaluated&nbsp; to determine the most relevant&nbsp; factors affecting instability of slope . The discontinuity data collected from&nbsp; the&nbsp; field&nbsp; surveys was analyzed&nbsp; using&nbsp; stereograph projection.&nbsp; Sub horizontal-layer slopes of&nbsp; limestone rocks in&nbsp; Euphrates&nbsp; formation at Al-Najaf&nbsp; governorate, center&nbsp; of&nbsp; Iraq, presence&nbsp; of failures&nbsp; in slopes , Its from most to least&nbsp; rock fall, secondary toppling, and rolling. The&nbsp; degree and&nbsp; nature&nbsp; of&nbsp; hazard&nbsp; risk&nbsp; depend on properties of the rock discontinuity. This study recommends that&nbsp; rock&nbsp; instability is enhanced by fences barrier and building concrete walls and remove weak rocks.</p> Jaffar H.A. Al-Zubaydi Batool A.A. Sultany Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon 2022-03-01 2022-03-01 89 101 Statistics and Analysis of some Heavy Elements and Water Wells in the Suction of Babylon 2021 <p>This study has been performed at the (hila city, kefal, Nile, abi karaka) region to indicate the suitability of the ground water which is important source for civil uses. The sample taken from (125) wells which</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; IN this, study the concentration of rare heavy elements of the Ground water sample of (17) wells dug for selected wells from ( Hilla&nbsp; , kefal , Nile , and abi karaka )&nbsp; which included (Pb ,CU , NI , Cd , Fe , ZN ) for three seasons of May 2018 different concentration and study the factors affecting them it was found that the increase concentrations of this elements in residential areas and less in the agricultural areas and found that it is not polluted ground water for the&nbsp; study area and falls within the specification of Iraqi and the world .</p> Hasson Alaiwi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon 2022-03-10 2022-03-10 102 134 The role of Lean Accounting in Reducing Administrative Expenses Proposed Model in One of The Formations of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research <p>&nbsp; Background:</p> <p>The goal of the accounting organizational structure of any department of the state is to reach the efficiency, effectiveness, harmony and time of work, quality of service, application of liability accounting based on the best choice, optimal use of working time and various resources, reducing expenses that have no value, and has been selected one of the formations of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research as the research community and the financial division of the research sample group for suffering from functional sagging,&nbsp; Waste, loss under traditional accounting practices.</p> <p>Materials and Methods:</p> <p>the goal of the research is to determine the digital value of errors and waste and waste of time and resources in the accounting work approved for the payroll unit based on the personal interview of individuals working in it individually and for the month of April 2021 and to present a proposed model to bribe these expenses. Results:</p> <p>lean accounting is a culture of censorship, measurement and administrative methods that reflect rational thinking, correct practices and best decisions through the use of its court tools, concept, correct, reliability of information and works to save time and money by eliminating losses in old systems.&nbsp;</p> <p>Conclusion:</p> <p>the most important findings of the research indicated that agile thinking and correct practices using the tools of securitization court work to reduce mistakes And provide resources (human, service, commodity, time) by eliminating the lost by taking advantage of the lost time of the record unit, which is characterized by efficiency and accounting knowledge and commissioning the work of organizing salaries to avoid accounting errors resulting from the application of traditional systems, in addition to the use of graceful accounting methods in the accounting cycle of units (salaries, records) helps to reduce expenses that do not add value to outputs while maintaining the quality of information.</p> Huda Jabbar Kadhim Al Hayali Copyright (c) 2022 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 135 159 Association of CYP19 Gene Polymorphism with Breast Cancer in Iraqi Women <p>The basic enzyme in estradiol synthesis is, Aromatase, it is encoded by the gene called CYP19A1. Given the importance of estrogen in the development of Breast cancer risk, we studyt genetic polymorphisms in the CYP19A1 gene the, including rs10046, in a group of 45 patient women in Kerbala province, Iraq. Our aim to investigate CYP19AI polymorphism its impact on patients of Breast cancer in Iraqi women. We found in our study, that in&nbsp; Iraqi postmenopausal women,( rs10046) single nucleotides and polymorphism (SNPs) was prognostic of different levels of estrone and Estradiol. Depending on the BMI scale reveals 22.25% with the breast cancer group in Comparison with 30% of healthy women. In case of BMI with( 20-24)&nbsp; in the breast cancer group were 22.2% compared with the healthy group 20%., While BMI&nbsp; of &gt;24 we found 33.4% in case of Breast cancer affected group in&nbsp; comparison with 20% of the unaffected group (Healthy). While in case of BMI &gt;30 there were 22.2% in case of the Breast cancer group in comparison with 30% of unaffected (healthy) group.&nbsp;&nbsp; The molecular analysis of CYP19 gene ,reveals that A allele frequency was (0.6333) and G allele (0.3667)&nbsp; upon that, we found that the number of patients which have had breast cancer were 28 and 17 ,respectively. In summary, our data show that polymorphisms in the CYP19A1 gene may contribute to Breast carcinogenesis in Iraqi women.</p> Abdulamir A. Alzahid Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL OF UNIVERSITY OF BABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 160 169 10.29196/jubpas.v30i1.4112 Detection of Brucella Infections from Clinically Suspected Cases of Brucellosis in Garmain City- Sulaimani Province Kurdistan- Iraq <p>Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease transmitted between animals and humans by contaminated food, direct contact with an affected animal, or inhalation of aerosols.&nbsp;The research was for the period October 2019 to March 2020, 67vein blood samples of clinically suspected brucellosis (Malta fever) and 20 from healthy persons as control were tested. Control samples showed negative for brucellosis infection when serological testing was performed. while out of 67 suspected patients, 14 were significantly positive for Rose Bengal at titer (160), 39 positive for ELISA (37 for IgG and 2 for IgM). Out of 37 positive samples for IgG by ELISA, only seven samples were positive for Rose Bengal while two positive samples for IgM was negative for Rose Bengal.</p> Hazhar Mohamed Aziz Hameed Rashid ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 170 179 A Predictive Study of the Severity of Covid 19 Symptoms According to Neutrosophic Logic <p>The study aimed to use regression analysis as a predictive method for the severity of symptoms of Covid 20 disease according to the classical and Neutrosophic logic in terms of the primary health status of corona patients.</p> <p>&nbsp;To achieve the objectives of the study, a tool was prepared to measure the primary health status of a patient with Covid 20 disease, consisting of (sex, smoking, diabetes, pressure, lung disease, heart disease, thyroid disease, previous malignant disease), and a tool was prepared to measure the severity of symptoms of Covid 20 disease. represented by (loss of the sense of taste, loss of the sense of smell, pharyngitis, fever, cough, difficulty breathing, and diarrhea), and the validity and reliability of these terms were confirmed in measuring each of the patient’s initial health status and the severity of symptoms by applying it to a sample consisting of (1116) Covid-20 disease by the method of internal consistency, Krumbach's alpha stability, and half-segment stability, and both scales showed good validity and reliability indicators.</p> <p>The researcher analyzed the linear regression of the severity of the symptoms of Covid 20 disease in terms of the initial health status by using a linear equation with statistical significance on the complete data after replacing the missing values ​​with the maximum odds method:</p> <p>Then the researcher analyzed the linear regression of the severity of the symptoms of Covid 19 disease in terms of the initial health status, with a linear equation with statistical significance on the complete data after replacing the missing values ​​with the indeterminacy coefficient, as shown by the following relationship</p> Hiba Dodouh Riad Alhamado Najm Alkhamdi Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 180 191 Lead Treatment by Eco-|Friendly Techniques <p>Lead contamination is an ancient health problem that requires advanced treatment strategies. Here, we review the bioremediation of lead by bacteria, biosorption, exogenous sugars, bioaccumulation, biomineralization and bioaccumulation. The response of bacteria is determined at the molecular level through the expression of specific genes and proteins to combat lead toxicity. Biosorption and biodeposition can be successfully used to clean polluted environments. Bacterial bioremediation can be combined with phytoremediation for a more effective biological treatment. The bioremediation of bacterial lead is limited by environmental conditions, nutrient availability, and the presence of other contaminants from bacterial growth.</p> Hala Faez Abdul Hadi Al-Jawahery Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 192 199 Key Generation for Vigenere Ciphering Based on Genetic Algorithm <p>Cryptography is a science securing of information. Encryption requires impregnable keys to encrypt or decrypt data these keys should be unpredictable and not easily to break. In this research we use genetic algorithm to generate keys for vigenere cipher. The best key is used to perform encryption. The keys created by genetic algorithm are tested for randomness by using the entropy test. The entropy calculation shows that randomness of key generated based on genetic processing is better than chosen key in the classical vigenere cipher.</p> Asraa Abdullah Hussein Noor Kadhim Ayoob Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 200 208 Flax Seed (Linum usitatissimum): the Healthy Medicinala and Preventive Food <p>Flaxseeds have been known since ancient times to the Greeks and Pharaohs for being one of the most important types of medicinal seeds with many benefits for the body.</p> <p>Flaxseed is mainly considered as one of the oil crops that has gained great attention as a health food, as it has proven its effective role in the field of cardiovascular diseases, reducing&nbsp; the proportion of fat and sugar in the blood, and as an anti-cancer of the breast and colon.</p> <p>&nbsp;Flaxseeds have also been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties&nbsp; in experimental studies in animals as well as humans. Researchers have reported that food products containing flaxseeds can have good consumer acceptance along with their nutritional benefits. This article highlights the effective role of flax seeds in the treatment or prevention of many diseases as a medicinal, preventive and curative food.</p> Halla Abdul-Hadi Chabuk Zainab Hadi Kamil Nuha Yaarub Al-Harbi Nawfal Amer Saleh Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 209 221 Assessment of Radiation Absorbed Dose and Cancer Risk in Head Computed Tomography Examinations <p>Background:</p> <p>The advanced development of computed tomography, which has become widely used, has increased interest and concerns about the risks of radiation dose to the patient. This research intended to calculate the effective doses received by adult patients undergoing head CT examinations and estimate the risk of developing cancer.</p> <p>Materials and Methods:</p> <p>A total of 278 patients of mixed gender, 134 males and 144 females, received head CT. Clinical parameters were obtained from archived CT image files. For this study, the volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol), dose length product (DLP), and effective dose (E) were used to express the CT dose. In addition, WAZA-ARI v2 was used to estimate the organ dose values, effective dose, and radiation risks.</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>Mean ±SD values CTDIvol were as follows: for head examination for males and females with contrast were 300.2±81.54 mGy and 165.33±46.38 mGy respectively, and non-contrast were 102.24± 33.18 mGy and 97.63 ± 26.78mGy respectively. For males and females, the mean±SD values DLP for the head with contrast were 4899.6 ± 1229.62, and 2235.73± 604.93, respectively, and non-contrast were&nbsp;&nbsp; 1307.16 ±431.39 and 1203.07± respectively.</p> <p>The mean effective doses which had been received by the patients from a CT examination for the head, for males and females with contrast were 5.71 ± 2.02 mSv and 4.47 ± 1.21mSv respectively, and non-contrast were 2.35 ± 0.78 mSv and 2.41± 0.67 mSv, respectively.</p> <p>The cancer risks probability per ED103 and ED60 for males were 6.4X10^5 and 3.1X10^5 respectively, while for females were7.3X10^5 and 3.9X10^5 respectively.</p> <p>Conclusion:</p> <p>CT scan of the head found, for males and females, that the radiation dose values for DLP, E, and CTDI increased with contrast examinations. The radiation dose values obtained in this research were slightly higher than the values observed in the literature.</p> Furman Kasseem Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 222 230 Prevalence, Isolation and Identification of Microorganisms from Homemade Cheese in Babylon Province <p>Forty samples of Gibin al Arab cheese were collected from local market at Babylon province for studying the microbial contamination ( bacterial and fungal growth ). first the study revealed that there was negative samples for each culture media used for bacterial detection, in MSA there was 27+ve samples and 13-ve samples, EMB with 24+ve samples and 16-ve samples, MRS with 32+ve samples and 8-ve samples finally S-S agar with 31+ve samples and 9 –ve samples. MSA record 17 strain of <em>Staphylococcus aureus,</em> 10 strain of <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis,</em> EMB record 12 strain of <em>Escherichia coli,</em> 18 strain of <em>Klebsiella,</em> MRS record 32 strain of <em>Lactobacillus,</em> S-S agar record 10 strain of <em>Salmonella,</em> 29 strain of <em>Shigella.</em> while fungi isolated on PDA was : <em>Penicillium digitatum </em>(74.7%), <em>Penicillium italicum </em>(13.2%), <em>Penicillium citrinum </em>(6.02 %), <em>Penisillium chrysogenum </em>(2.40%), <em>Aspergellus nedulans </em>(3.7 %), <em>Alternaria </em>(0%), <em>Candida spp. </em>with more isolates, also <em>Rhodotorella </em>more. MEA media used for fungi isolation record : <em>Penicillium digitatum</em>(80%), <em>Penicillium italecum </em>(3.1%), <em>Penicillium citrinm </em>(0%), <em>Penicillium chrysogenum </em>(6.2%), <em>Aspergillus nidulans</em> (7.69%), <em>Alternaria </em>( 3.1% ), <em>Candida spp</em>. with more isolates, <em>Rhodotorella </em>more like on PDA.</p> Sabreen A. Kamal Abeer F. Murad Ruia Khudhair Abbas Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon 2022-06-14 2022-06-14 231 238 A Survey of Unmixed Bipartite Graphs and Very Well-Covered Graphs <p>Many authors investigated unmixed and bipartite graphs. There are many results obtained on these two types of graphs and show that a bipartite graph&nbsp; G&nbsp; satisfies Serre’s condition&nbsp; S<sub>2</sub>, then G is Cohen-Macaulay. This paper is a survey with some new results about very well-covered graphs, an unmixed bipartite graph.</p> Diyar M. Mohammed Adil K. Jabbar Halgwrd M. Darwesh Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 239 247 An Overview: the types of Covid-19 vaccines in Iraq <p>Background:</p> <p>SARS-CoV-2 is RNA virus belonging to the Coronaviridae family that causes COVID-19. This newly sequenced virus seems to have originated in China and spread throughout world rapidly, causing a pandemic. According to the WHO, as of August 27 it had killed more than 2, 34 million people.Vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an important part of the multifaceted public health response, and may be the best solution for ending the pandemic. In addition, the laboratories around the world are working hard to develop an efficient vaccine for this disease, which is crucial to reduce mortality and morbidity. Most vaccines are designed to stimulate the synthesis of neutralizing antibodies against coat protein. These antibodies block the human ACE-2 receptor, thus preventing the entry of virus. While many vaccine platforms have developed vaccines, each offers several advantages and disadvantages. To date, there are seven types of vaccine (Pfizer Vaccine, Moderna Vaccine, AstraZeneca Vaccine, Johnson &amp; Johnson Vaccine, Sinofarm Vaccine, Sputnik-V Vaccine and Novavax Vaccine) which are used around the world. Pfizer and Biontech vaccines are the most widely used vaccines in 10 countries: Saudi Arabia, UAE, Qatar, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain, Jordan, Lebanon, Tunisia and Iraq. The Pfizer vaccine is a molecule of mRNA, a "messenger" ribonucleic acid, that codes the spike protein on the surface of the coronavirus, which is used by the virus uses to attach to human cells. Once the vaccine enters the body, human cells produce antibodies against this protein to intercept viruses before they enter the cells and multiply, so that the immune system can recognize and attack the virus. Moderna vaccine; uses the same mechanism as the mRNA-based Pfizer vaccine, stimulating the generation of antibodies.</p> <p>AstraZeneca vaccine came in second place with 9 countries: Saudi Arabia, UAE, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain, Morocco and Egypt, in addition to Iraq. AstraZeneca vaccine containing a weakened copy of the adenovirus, the common cold virus. The scientists modified the virus so that it cannot reproduce in human cells.&nbsp; Then, added the genes that code for the spike protein found on the surface of the Corona virus. When the vaccine enters the body and reaches the cells, it delivers these spike protein genes, which are used to build the protein itself. The spike proteins triggers an immune response.Similar to the AstraZeneca vaccine, The Johnson &amp; Johnson vaccine contains a weakened version of the common cold virus (adenovirus). Scientists modified the adenovirus genetically so that it could no longer infect human cells. Then, they added genes that code for the coronavirus' spike protein. Once in the body, the vaccine trains the immune system to recognize the spike protein and targets the coronavirus to destroy it.The Chinese Sinopharm vaccine is used in five countries: the UAE, Bahrain, Jordan, Morocco and Egypt, In cooperation with the Beijing Institute of Biological Products, Sinopharm developed a vaccine from the inactive corona-virus, a modified version of the virus (SARS-CoV-2) that cannot reproduce. The Russian Sputnik vaccine was used in Bahrain, Tunisia and Algeria.The Sputnik-V vaccine is based on adenovirus vectors. Adenoviruses are among the most easy and simple viruses to modify, and therefore their spread as vectors has expanded."Vectors" are carriers that can transport genetic material from one virus to another. The infectious adenovirus has its genetic material deleted, and a gene “coding” a protein from another virus, which, in the case of developing corona-virus infection, enters the body. This new added component helps the immune system respond and produce antibodies that protect it from infection.Novavax uses a different approach than other vaccines, in which proteins from the virus and chemicals are injected to stimulate the body's immune system. The vaccine is based on inserting a mutated gene into a virus called baculovirus, which was then allowed to infect insect cells. Subsequently, spike proteins from these cells were combined into nanoparticles that look like coronaviruses they are not. It has the ability to replicate and cause COVID-19. These nanoparticles within the vaccine trigger the immune system response, so that when it&nbsp;&nbsp; encounters the corona-virus it will be able to resist it.</p> <p>Conclusion:</p> <p>In Iraq used only three types of vaccines (Pfizer, Sinofarm and AstraZeneca Vaccine. All types of vaccines can be reduce the morbidity of Covid-19.</p> Hiba Jasim Hamza Raoof Jabbar Abbas Maaroof Nada Khazal K. Hindi Ammar Abbas Shalan Amean A. Yasir Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON 2022-03-31 2022-03-31 248 256