JOURNAL OF UNIVERSITY OF BABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>OURNAL of <strong>U</strong>NIVERSITY of <strong>B</strong>ABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences, (<span style="color: #008000;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon for Pure and Applied Sciences in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong> is a scientific peer-reviewed open access journal publishing high-quality research and review papers at the forefront of modern research describing significant developments in Pure and Applied Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Online ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>2312-8135</strong></span></a></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Print ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>1992-0652</strong></span></a></span></p> University of Babylon en-US JOURNAL OF UNIVERSITY OF BABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences 1992-0652 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality of Ainsifni Pila Spi Aquifer North-East of Mosul City/ North of Iraq <p>Water quality is an important issue in ground water studies and is just as important as its quantity owing to the fitting of water for various purposes.</p> <p>The main objectives of this study are to determine the chemical and physical characteristics of ground water of Ainsifni Pila Spi aquifer and to asses its quality for determining its suitability for domestics and irrigation purpose and to compare the concentration of both cations and anions with that of WHO. Ground water samples were collected from 8 drilling wells, during field work in Sept. 2014, for the analysis of their chemical composition of major cations and anions. The analysis comprises physical and chemical parameters of ground water such as; EC, pH, TDS, Na, K, Ca, Mg. HCO<sub>3</sub>, CO<sub>3</sub>, SO<sub>4</sub>, CL and NO<sub>3</sub>.</p> <p>Chemical parameters such as, total hardness (TH), sodium percent (Na%) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), &nbsp;were calculated, based on the analytical results of ground water samples.</p> <p>Basement rocks of the studied area which is crop out at the surface of ainsifni anticline, are represented by Pila Spi Formation of Middle Miocene age which consist of limestone. It is overlain by Quaternary sediments which are highly permeable beds.</p> <p>Hydrochemical analysis are analyzed graphically using Piper diagram to determine the suitability and type of the groundwater. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and sodium percentage (Na%) are also calculated to show the suitability of ground water for agricultural irrigation.</p> <p>According to the results of chemical analysis of ground water samples, types of water are of CaHCO<sub>3</sub> and mix Ca-Mg-HCO<sub>3</sub>. More over ground water samples are of moderate TDS which is within the specification of (TDS) values set up by the WHO, medium TH and generally groundwater of the studied are is of alkalinity in nature.</p> <p>The over all quality of ground water samples of the studied area in most chemical constituents is on the moderate side in comparing with that of WHO due to its unique location away from any behavior of environmental pollutants. Rainfall water is the only source of replenishment to the groundwater aquifer.</p> Taha Hussein Al-Salim Ali Zain Al-Abdeen Al-Ozeer Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 1 11 Solving Some Types of the Second and Third Order Spectral Linear Ordinary Differential Equations <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Our article is for finding complete primitive for two different kinds of linear ordinary differential equations in a spectral type. First kind is consisting of two different types of coefficients of order two; one of them is polynomials, where as the other type is continuous functions and both are of real types. The second kind is for a third order, and here the coefficients of this kind are also several real polynomials, and in both kinds of spectral linear ordinary differential equations, the coefficients are converted to the constants via varying the independent variable to a new one.&nbsp; We gave examples to explain our mechanism.</p> Aryan Ali Mohammed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 12 24 Evaluation of Spirulina Platensis Crude Extract against some Pathogenic Microorganisms and Determination of Amino Acid Profile by HPLC, Erbil City <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The concept of biological controls and the use of algal extracts as antimicrobial substance has received widespread of attentions over the past few years. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine antimicrobial activities of <em>Spirulina platensis </em>and also Analysis of Amino acid profile by HPLC. For achieve this goal two different organic solvents have been used for extracts of <em>Spirulina platensis</em>, which were ethanol, and ethyl acetate. Crude extract of <em>Spirulina platensis </em>was tested in vitro against <em>Salmonella Typhi </em>(ATCC:14028), <em>Streptococcus pyogenes </em>(ATCC:19165) and <em>Candida albicans </em>(ATCC:10231) with Agar well diffusion method (1\10 W\V), additionally HPLC determined amino acid profile and the protein percentage per dry weight of extract. The results of present study declared that antimicrobial activity of crude extract of <em>Spirulina platensis </em>by ethanol was more effective than ethyl acetate, the highest inhibition zone was recorded against <em>Candida albicans </em>&nbsp;which was 19.5mm (ethanol solvent) and estimated protein percentage was 18.12 % in dry weight of <em>Spirulina platensis.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kwestan Hassan Sdiq Shean Ismail Salih Safin Tahsin Kakayi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 25 34 Nutrition and Quality Properties of Low-calorie Cake Made by Low-calorie Fat Formula <p>The present study was conducted to produce a low-calorie fat (LCF) characterized by normal specification of commercial fat and acceptable quality properties, to be used in making low calorie cakes with Low-calorie fat. The low- calorie fat formulated by blending of beeswax and sunflower oil in three different ratios (25:75, 50:50, 75:25) w/w. The physiochemical properties of Low-calorie fat and nutritional, caloric and sensory properties of prepared cakes were evaluated. The properties of melting point and peroxide value are significantly increased (P≤ 0.05) for the three formulated fats. While the values of free fatty acids and acid value, their values are higher in A25:75 and C 75:25 samples as compared with B 50:50 sample. Inversely, the blending level of 25:75 had a higher smoke point score. The sensory properties of prepared cakes all are&nbsp; insignificant (p&gt;0.05) for control A, B and C samples in terms of Taste, Favor, Crumb color, Crumb softness, texture and overall score. A nutritional content sash, protein, carbohydrate, caloric value, caloric decreasing percentage values are significantly (P≤ 0.05) influenced by control, A, B and C samples. The caloric value of all cake samples is significantly (P≤ 0.05) decreased with respect to control sample.</p> Rafiq Mohammed Salih Rashid Aveen Jalal Ahmed Barqi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 35 44 Effect of Age Traits on Semen Characteristics of Artificial Insemination Center Bulls in IRAQ <p>&nbsp;This study was conducted in the artificial insemination centre which located in Abu Ghraib / Baghdad/ Iraq from 1<sup>st</sup> October /2018 to April/2019&nbsp; by using nine bulls at age between 2-8 years old and their&nbsp; weight between 600-800 kilograms from Holstein breed born in Iraq and have been trained for semen collection by artificial vagina method. The aim of study was to determine the optimal age for bulls used for artificial insemination and test their semens for insemination according to spccific indicators to achieve better pregnancy ratio&nbsp; possibly. The required investigations for semen evaluation involved colour, concentration , mass and individual movement as well as semen pH were implemented. The animals were divided based on their ages&nbsp; into three sub groups, 1<sup>st</sup> group from 2-4 years old , 2<sup>nd</sup> group from 4-6 years old and the 3<sup>rd</sup> group from 6-8 years under ideal conditions with respect to healthy conformation, feeding and heath management according to the Artificial insemination center. 72 ejaculations hadbeen collected over seven&nbsp; months by artificial vagina method at rate one ejaculation per bull weekly.&nbsp;&nbsp; The results of current&nbsp; study revealed that&nbsp; ejaculation volume in experimental&nbsp;&nbsp; bulls did not differ significantly(p&gt;0.05) by differences of age categories which, 6.80 ±0.27 and 6.84 ± 0.60 ml for age category 6.38 0.37± amounted&nbsp; 2-4, 4-6 and&nbsp; 6-8 years old respectively. Regarding to mass movement of sperms, it was found positive marker&nbsp; in small age (39.26±1.66%) compared to middle age (33.04±2.46%) and old age (20.90±2.43%) with significant difference (p&lt;0.01), moreover, there was a significant difference(p&lt;0.05) between the middle and old ages and tend to be of middle age. Also, the individual movement of sperms was grater in small age (51.29±1.70%) compared to middle age (41.52±2.25%) and old age (29.77±2.83%) at significant difference (p&lt;0.01) with signed difference(p&lt;0.05) between middle and old age that tend to be to middle ages. With respect to sperm concentration there was in significant differences (P&lt;0.01) of all age groups which Ponto lout the following results 1461.27±304.17, 1237.26±56.83 and 1558.53±432.04% for age grop&nbsp; 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 years old respectively. Concerning&nbsp; semen&nbsp; pH, the results were&nbsp; showed that no significant differences(p&lt;0.05) among of&nbsp; all age group that recorded the following results 6.60±0.02, 6.59±0.02 and 6.61±0.03% of ages&nbsp; 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 years old respectively .The length of sperm head was high in old age (7.95±0.01) compared to middle age (7.16±0.02) and small age (7.09±0.03) with significant difference (p&lt;0.01), also the width of sperm head recorded the significant difference(p&lt;0.05) in favor of old age group (6-8) years old. The results showed that the elliptic form of sperm head was good in old age group (1.908 ± 0.010)µm compared with middle age group (1.772 ± 0.004) µm and small age group (1.778 ± 0.004)µm with significant difference (p &lt;0.01). The elongation and regularity of the sperm head recorded a significant superiority(p&lt;0.05) of the old group (6-8) years . in conclusion ,can be concluded that some semen characteristics were optimum in middle ages group and tend to be in favorable in this age groups ,so that the age exact positive and negative effect on characteristic of semen.&nbsp;</p> Marwa Khaled Abdulkareem Makki Khalaf Hussein Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 45 54 Effect Different Levels of Calcium and Phosphorus With and Without Probiotics Inclusion on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Jejunum Morphology of Broiler Chickens <p>This study was conducted at the poultry farm of the Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, for the period from 12/8/2018 to 26/9/2018. The object of this study was to evaluate the impact of the inclusion of probiotics (Pro) on growth performance, carcass traits, and jejunum morphology in broiler chickens that suffering from calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (avP) deficiency. A total of 1440 1-d-old broilers chicks (Ross 308) were used, on the first day, birds were randomly allotted to one of the 4 treatments: (1) control diet (0.96% Ca and 0.48% avP) as recommended by the Ross 308 strain guidelines; (2) Low1 (0.864 % Ca and 0.432% avP); (3) Low2 (0.768 % Ca and 0.384% avP); and (4) Low3 (0.672 % Ca and 0.336% avP). Each treatment contained on 36 replicates and 12 chicks for each replicate except the control treatment as it contained on 12 replicates and 12 chicks for replicate. On 11 d, each treatment of low Ca and avP treatments, except control treatment, were divided into the following six groups (low1, low2 and low3 with probiotics( or (low1, low2 and low3 without probiotics). The completely randomized design was used in the experimental design. The results showed no significant differences among treatments in terms of weight gain and feed intake, while the feed conversion ratio was impacted by low-calcium and phosphorus with or without probiotics. Where the feed conversion ratio has improved in the birds fed the Low Ca and avP diets or birds fed the Low-Ca avP+Pro diets when compared with those fed the control group (P&lt;.0001). Dietary treatments did not affect the relative weight of parts and internal organs of the carcass (P&gt;0.05). Additionally, the villus height, crypt depth and villus height to crypt depth ratio were improved in birds that fed low-calcium and phosphorus diets with Probiotics when compared with birds that fed low-calcium and phosphorus diets without probiotics. In conclusion, it is possible to decrease dietary Ca and avP levels by 10%, 20%, and 30% during the grower and finisher phases without affecting growth performance, carcass characteristics, internal organs, and intestinal morphology. Also, the addition of probiotics did not affect the traits studied above except for morphology intestinal.</p> <p>Research paper from the Ph.D. thesis for the first author</p> Zeyad Kamal Imari Ahmad Hassanabadi Hassan Nassiri-Moghaddam Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 55 69 Remote Sensing Based Analysis of Interactions between Tectonics and Landscapes in Rawanduz River, Northeastern Iraq <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The study area along the northeast border of Iraq is a perfect location to test the notion of an index to predict relative tectonic activity, as well as being considered a very characteristic area as include three main tectonic zones (High Folded Zone, Imbricate Zone and Zagros Suture Zone). This study area has variable rates of active tectonics resulting from the collision of Arabian and Iranian plates. This study aims at highlighting the possibility of information systems programs in building a morphometric geographic database of the Rawanduz River Basin, which is one of the main basins of the Greater Zab River using Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM), Digital Elevation Model (DEM 90 m) data to evaluate the drainage condition of this river with the help of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing. The morphometric analysis of the Rawanduz drainage basin has been executed during measurement of linear, areal and relief aspects as well as we offer a new process for estimate relative active tectonics according on geomorphic indices useful in evaluating morphology and topography. A total of 26 sub-basins were delineated in the Rawanduz River Basin. Geomorphic indices used include: drainage basin asymmetry (A<sub>f</sub>), ratio of valley-floor width to valley height (V<sub>f</sub>), index of drainage basin shape (Bs), and index of mountain front sinuosity (S<sub>mf</sub>). Results from the analysis are accumulated and expressed as an index of relative active tectonics (Iat), which we divide into four classes from relatively low to higher tectonic activity.</p> Shamil J. Abdullah Manal Sh. Al.Kubaisi Arsalan A. Othman Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 70 100 New Fractional Spline Polynomial for Computing Fractional Differential Equations <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>This paper illustrates how fractional lacunary for quartic polynomial using spline function has been constructed.&nbsp; On the other hand the existence, the uniqueness and error bounded for these functions have been discussed and proved. The goal of this method is to solve fractional differential equations. The efficiency and pertinence of these new methods are illustrated by giving numerically computing examples.</p> Amina H. Ali Faraidun K. Hamasalh Saiwan M. Fatah Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 101 109 Effect of Adding Mentha Pulegium, Thymus Vulgaris Powder and Their Mixture to the Diet of Broiler on the Performance and Some Blood Parameters <p>This experiment was designed in the field of animal production of the Technical College / Al-Musayyib to study the effect of adding <em>Mentha pulegium</em> and <em>thymus Vulgaris</em> powder and their mixture to the diet of&nbsp; broiler on the performance and some blood parameters. In this experiment, 96 chick strain Ross308 one day old was used with avarge weight of 40 g / chick distributed on the basis of a completely random design on four treatments, each treatment contained two replicates,&nbsp; 24 chicks / treatment. Treatments were, first treatment (control diet that does not contain any addition), the second treatment (control diet + <em>Mentha Pulegium</em> powder 0.6%), the third treatment (control diet + <em>Thymus Vulgaris</em> powder 0.6%) and the fourth treatment (control diet + mixture of <em>Mentha Pulegium</em> and <em>Thymus Vulgaris</em> powder 0.6% ). The results of the experiment showed significant differences (p£0.05)in the final weight of the fourth and second treatment respectively compared with the other treatments, it also the results of statistical analysis showed the presence of significant differences (p£0.05) in the rate of feed intake that was in favor of the fourth treatment that was less consumed to diet, while the control treatment had consumption of feed intake more than other treatments. The results of the experiment also showed the presence of a food conversion factor with significant differences (p£0.05)in favor of the fourth treatment. The dress weight of the fourth treatment was Higher than other treatments of the experiment.</p> Mohanad, K. Ulsagheer Sarah, J. Zamel Hadeel, A. Almamoory Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 110 121 π-Projective Semimodule Over Semiring <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; Previously the concept of π-projective modules over ring was studied by some authors. The aim of this research is to give a comprehensive study of π-projective semimodule and access to some new properties and characterizations for this class of semimodules.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Let <em>S </em>be a commutative semiring with identity 1≠0 and <em>T </em>a unital left semimodule, then we say that <em>T </em>is π-projective &nbsp;if for every two subsemimodules <em>M</em> and <em>L</em> of <em>T</em> with <em>T</em>=<em>M+L</em>, there exist <em>f </em>and <em>g</em> ϵEnd(<em>T</em>), such that <em>f +g=</em>1<em><sub>T</sub></em>,&nbsp; <em>f</em>(<em>T</em>) <em>M </em>and<em> g</em>(<em>T</em>) <em>L</em>.</p> Muna M.T. Altaee Asaad A. M. Alhossaini Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 122 137 Semi-Normed Difference Operator Triple Sequence Spaces Defined by a Double Orlicz-Functions <p>In this paper we introduce semi-normed difference operator triple sequence spaces by using a double Orlicz-functions, so we study their different properties like completeness, solidity, monotonicity, symmetricity etc.</p> Ali Hussein Battor Dalael Saad Abdulzahra Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 138 146 Developing Agent-Based Model for Colorization <p>Colorization is adding colors to black and white images. Colorization attracts the interest of researchers as it serves wide are of applications such as web technology and medical images processing. The expected large dimensionality of source datasets, imposes the automation is mandatory. In this paper, a natural inspired solution is developed for automatic color transferring from colored to grayscale images. The proposed algorithm can be easily implemented in parallel and distributed environment. We show that our technique can be applied on broad image types, with preserving image features such as texture and luminance. The resulting images make our technique applicable in verity domains. The algorithm is simulated and result is presented using NetLogo tool.</p> Ahmed A. Husssein Mahdi Abed Salman Hasanain Ali Al Essa Nawras Yahya Hussein Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 147 157 Comparison between Complications of Infants of Diabetic Mothers in Treated & Non-Treated Mothers in Babylon Teaching Hospital for Maternity and Pediatrics <p><strong>Background:</strong> Infants of diabetic mother are those&nbsp; born to mother who has persistently elevated blood sugar during pregnancy. It causes fetal hyperglycemia ,which contributed to many complications happen on those infants.</p> <p>This study aims To show the outcome of&nbsp; infants of diabetic mothers.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>the study included 100 infant born to diabetic mothers in the period between 1<sup>st</sup>. April 2015 to 17<sup>th</sup>. August&nbsp; 2016 . multiple clinical, biochemical and radiographic assessments was done to them to discover any complication. The results then are compared between infants of treated to non-treated mothers using SPSS software.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>the study found that infants of non-treated diabetic mothers show higher percentage of complications in comparison to those treated mothers like&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Hypoglycemia 83%, hypocalcemia 5% and no hypomagnesemia in treated mothers group while in untreated mothers show 94% hypoglycemia, 29% hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia 17%. Also the study found higher percentage of respiratory, cardiac, neurological and genito-renal complication in neonates of non-treated infants compared to treated one.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Higher clinical &amp;biochemical complications are seen seen in neonates of non- treated mothers or poorly control diabetes. Most teratogenic complications occur in infants born to mothers with diabetes that is poorly controlled.</p> Ayser M. Al-Hilali Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 158 166 Spin eel fish Mastacembelus mastacembelus (Banks et Solander in Russell, 1794) as a New Host to the Parasite Centrocestus formosanus Phase Excysts metacercaria for the First Time in Iraq <p>It has been collect &nbsp;five fishes of <em>Mastacembelus mastacembelus</em> in the days 25\7 ,30\7 and 5\8 of the year 2018 from the fishermen that fishing from Al-mashrooa river one Km from the floodgate which connect it with Euphrates River at Al-Musaib region and after dissection and examine it have been isolate the parasite&nbsp; <em>Centrocestus formosanus</em> phase Excysts metacercaria from the gill and it’s isolation for the first time then it regarded as new hosts in Iraq.</p> Bashar Abdul-Hussain Al-Sa'adi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 167 172 Studying the Isotopes nearby Closed Shell of Kr, Xe and Hg Using Interacting Boson Models <p>The closed shell of neutrons or protons means there is no boson numbers, which are important for applying IBM models. The properties of nuclear structure for isotopes depend on the boson numbers. If they are small the vibrational properties will appear or nearby from these properties. our theoretical results using two models (IBM-1 and IBM-2) are acceptable matching regard to the energy levels with the experimental data, electric transitions and potential energy surface. For neutron number <sup>82,84</sup>Kr is nearby 50 closed shell which has transition properties between U(5) and O(6), <sup>132,134</sup>Xe is nearby 80 has U(5) properties and nearby 126 but for <sup>202,204</sup>Hg have different properties.</p> Ghaidaa A.Hafedh Jaber Mohsin Kadhim Muttaleb Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 173 183 Estimation of the Electric Properties of Al/Cv System <p>The electric properties of Al/Cv device system has been studied according to investigating and calculation the electron transport rate based on theoretical calculation and transition model. A classical model coupled with quantum model has been used to describe the rate of electrons at contact of Al metal with Crystal violet [Tris (4-(dimethylamino) phenyl methylium chloride] (Cv) dye has chemical formula C25H30CIN3. Two solvent Diethyl ether and Acetonitrile are used with non-homogeneous system for different absorption wave length 600,625,650,675 and 700 nm for Cv dye and the system is studied at room temperature. The effect of transition energy, potential and absorption energy on the transport rate in Al/Cv interface are studied and discussed. Rate of electrons in Al/Cv system is founded to be increasing with increasing the transition energy, increasing wave length and decreasing the potential for system in both solvents media.&nbsp; Our result shows that, at large transition energy and increasing wave length, the system has good electric properties &nbsp;and vice versa .Data show that Acetonitrile solvent is more suitable media for better electronic transfer rate&nbsp; in Al/Cv dye system.</p> Hadi J. M. AL-Agealy Mohammed Z. Fadhil Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 184 193 Solution Techniques Based on Adomian and Modified Adomian Decomposition for Nonlinear Integro-Fractional Differential Equations of the Volterra-Hammerstein Type <p>This paper efficiently applies the Adomian Decomposition Method and Modified Adomian Decomposition Method as computational techniques to locate the semi-analytical solution or semi-approximate solution for the considered nonlinear Integro Differential Equations for the fractional-order (IFDE) of the Volterra-Hammerstein (V-H) type, in which the higher-multi fractional derivative is described in the Caputo sense.In this procedure, we radically change the IFDE’s of V-H type into some iterative algebraic equations and the solution of this equations is considered as the sum of the countless sequence of components typically converging to the solution based on the noise terms where a closed-form solution is not obtainable, a truncated number of terms is usually used for numerical purposes.Finally, examples are prepared to illustrate these considerations.</p> Shokhan A. Hamasalih Mariwan R. Ahmed Shazad Shawki Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 194 216 Comparative Study of Performance of Particle Swarm Optimization and Fast Independent Component Analysis method in Cocktail Party Problem <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; There are many methods used for solving the Blind Source Separation problem, such as Independent Component Analysis which became the most commonly used method. ICA methods depend on one of two properties: sample dependency or non-Gaussianity. In our study, the cocktail-party problem processed using ICA method.</p> <p>In this work, we studied the performance of two techniques with the independent component analysis is standard FastICA, and PSO; and compare the results of each algorithm with others according to some evaluation metrics (objective such as SNR and SDR ) and (subjective such as signals plotting and playing). The implement of these algorithms was to be made with two source signals and three source signals. As in the evaluation process, the PSO gives more accurate results than FastICA.</p> <p>Many input speech signals of 8 KHz sampling frequency, that achieve i.i.d. condition and well-condition were tested for different speeches for men and/or women, also music.</p> Hawraa S. Hamza Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-04-01 2020-04-01 217 225