JOURNAL OF UNIVERSITY OF BABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>OURNAL of <strong>U</strong>NIVERSITY of <strong>B</strong>ABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences, (<span style="color: #008000;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon for Pure and Applied Sciences in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong> is a scientific peer-reviewed open access journal publishing high-quality research and review papers at the forefront of modern research describing significant developments in Pure and Applied Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Online ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>2312-8135</strong></span></a></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Print ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>1992-0652</strong></span></a></span></p> University of Babylon en-US JOURNAL OF UNIVERSITY OF BABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences 1992-0652 The Numerical Investigations of Non-Polynomial Spline for Solving Fractional Differential Equations <p>We present a crossing approach based on the new construction of non-polynomial spline function to investigate the numerical solution of the fractional differential equations. We find the accuracy of the spline method and to presenting the completion of non-polynomial spline two examples for problems are used. To clarify, we present the numerical computations that can be used to solve difficult problems while the results are found and got to be in good error estimation with comparing exact solutions.</p> Faraidun K. Hamasalh Mizhda Abbas Headayat Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 1 18 On Quotient Semigroup <p>In this paper, we introduce a new type of semigroup, namely (<strong>Quotient semigroup</strong>) in differential equations with the functional analytic. This semigroup constructs the solution of the partial differential equations as the form:</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Saud Mohammed Hassan Dunia Mohamad Kreem Al-Ftlawy Zainab Fahad Mhawes Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 19 28 Does Math Destroyed the Jurassic Park? <p>There is a scene in Jurassic Park movie in which the character Dr Malcolm, attempt to explain the mean of chaos theory to Dr Sattlar.</p> <p>He dropping a bead of water on her knuckle on her hand, then he put another bead on the same place, it takes a different trajectory from the first one. He asserts that tiny variation of her hand make &nbsp;the first trajectory different from the second one.</p> <p>Now let us ask what happened in Jurassic Park? Dr Malcolm attributes this unpredictability to chaos. He said that many times when he saw that the events of the film evolve in unpredictable way.&nbsp; He use his mathematics to grantee that the park will be out of the control of its manager. Of course he is correct, but is it truth that the Chaos is the cause of the chaos of Jurassic Park. Let us know what Chaos is and then answer this question.</p> Ali Hasan Abdul Khaleq Eman S. Bhaya Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 29 34 Electronic Stopping Powers for Protons in Polymers C5H8O2, C2H3CL and C2F4 <p>The electronic stopping power of the proton reaction in the polymers C<sub>5</sub>H<sub>8</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>3</sub>CL ,C<sub>2</sub>F<sub>4</sub> &nbsp;for the energy ranging between (20-10000) MeV was studied. Numerical calculations and analysis of the results were carried out using the Matlab program for the Bohr and Beth equation and SRIM 2013 program. &nbsp;All theoretical and practical values and results are presented in graphs. The stopping time of each polymer in protons was calculated.</p> Ahlam Habeeb Hussien Shahla abdulsada kadhim Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 35 42 Survey of Features Extraction and Classification Techniques for Speaker Identification <p>Speech processing is more common day by day to provide enormous safety. The speech for the purpose of authentication is commonly used. Recognition of the speaker is the method that can check and recognize the speaker. The scheme of speech recognition is distinct from the scheme of speaker recognition. Recognition of speakers is commonly used in sectors, hospitals, laboratories, etc. Its benefits are safer, easier to implement, more user-friendly. Speaker identification method is one of the most commonly used techniques for the region where safety is very crucial. This article presents an overview of various methods that can be used to recognize speakers’ systems, the feature extraction techniques such as Linear Predictive Coding (LPC), Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficients (LPCC), Unique Mapped Real Transform (UMRT), Real Cepstral Coefficients (RCC), “Mel-frequency Cepstrum” (MFCC), in addition to &nbsp;various classification techniques such as “Gaussian mixture model (GMM)”, “Dynamic Time Warping (DTW)”, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Neural Network (NN), “Vector Quantization” (VQ). The primary purpose of is to explain the common speaker recognition methods. The obtained results are that, MFCC is chosen for high efficiency and low complexity. and GMM is helpful in classifying less memory and less planning and efficient test results.</p> Sahar Adil Kadhum Ahmed Badri Muslim Ali Yakoob Al-Sultan Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 43 54 Evaluation of Different Methods of Curing Bacterial Plasmids <p>Plasmids play an important role in the spread of antibiotic resistance among bacterial strains that pose a threat to global health. Traditional methods of curing plasmid rely on the development of bacterial strains under inappropriate conditions, such as high temperature or the addition of intruding agents that interfere with the structure of DNA synthesis during the replication of plasmids. Other methods rely on the phenomenon of plasmid compatibility based on the principle of competition between identical plasmids but require accurate knowledge of the mechanism of multiplying the target plasmid, in addition to the subsequent treatment of the interfering plasmid. With the advent of Crispras9, which simulates natural bacterial defense against plasmid and latex infiltrators, this technique has been used as an accurate tool for targeting places specializing in plasmid DNA. In this review, we will address the most important methods of removing and deleting plasmids from bacterial cells.</p> Dalal. M.R. Al-Shuailiyah Zahraa M. AL-Taee Raflaa S.H. Hussian Hawraa Mohammed Ridha Rasha Nayyef Ali Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 55 67 Determination Force/Source Function Dependent on Space Under the Non-classical Condition Data <p>In this present paper deal with an inverse force/source problem for a one-dimension wave equation under the non-classical condition with the right end displacement boundary as the additional measurement. Furthermore, inverse force/source problem comes from splitting wave equation, which is unstable while adding noise under the right end boundary condition. Numerical algorithm is based on finite different method (FDM) combine with separation variable. L-curve method and min norm is applied to reach regularization parameter where zeroth order Tikhonov regularization is proposed. Figures in section 3 are shown how accurate this unusual condition working in the wave equation.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> S.O. Hussein Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-15 2020-12-15 68 75 The Correlation between COVID-19 and Cytokine Storms ‘The Treacherous Immune Response’ <p>SARS-CoV-2, or COVID-19, is a quickly spreading global virus that has been reported as a pandemic by the World Health Organisation (WHO). COVID-19 is spread by droplets or direct contact and, in most cases, infects the respiratory tract leading to pneumonia and, in around 15% of cases, to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Mortality in COVID-19 patients has also been linked to the existence of the virus-induced cytokine storm. Excessive pro-inflammatory cytokine production contributes to the aggravation of ARDS and significant damage to tissues, leading to multi-organ failure and death. The cytokine storm's pathogenesis is very complex. Much data suggests that the extreme worsening in several patients was directly linked to the cytokine storm in their bodies during the COVID-19 epidemic. This article discusses the cause of incidence and management methods of the inflammatory storm caused by the COVID-19 virus to offer useful clinical treatment advice without using drugs.</p> Rojan G.M. AL-Allaff Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 76 89 COVID 19,Risk of Infection and Biosafety Protocols in Diagnostic Laboratories <p>Over several decades, plenty of records of lab. workers contracting disease due to the infectious materials have been documented. About 80 percent of these cases are thought to be directly associated with the formation of aerosols during the lab. works with potentially infectious samples. Small liquid or solid particles of aerosols suspended in the air for a while or spread over a wide range of distances and then inhaled easily. However, they can be settled rapidly on surfaces such as skin and ventilation systems if the diameters of particles are higher than 5 microns. Effective steps should regularly be used to protect staff and the environment, or to reduce the extent of the aerosols production. Measures containing the aerosol are to be applied where physical containment at practice 2(P2) and above levels is needed for the research operation.</p> <p>In most cases the safely equipment’s and precautions must be available in all time in the lab. and comply with the required level of Biosafety for any type of the laboratory work (including the relevant biological agents, SARS-CoV-2 in this case). Staff who working with suspected or confirmed specimens of COVID-19 or of SARS-CoV-2 should be completely protected from such infectious materials. Good biosafety practices have been recognized to avoid or mitigate the spread of infection (i.e., SARS-CoV-2). Standard precautions expected to be already used by laboratories as stated in the general guidelines and they should follow standard laboratory practices. Practices related with these biosafety requirements must be proceed when dealing with samples/specimens from SARS-CoV-2. This involves microbiological as well as clinical laboratories conducting routine serum, blood, sputum (respiratory) and other sample diagnostic, analytical, or other research-related studies.</p> Zeena Hadi Obaid Alwan Rafal Ahmed AL-Gelawi Suad Ghali Kadhim Al-Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 90 97 Ventriculosubgaleal shunt versus External Ventricular Drain in the treatment of Acute Hydrocephalus in Adults <p>Hydrocephalus is caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), Infection or by a tumor compressing the CSF passages is mostly temporary and can resolve with treatment. We have many methods to assure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion, no method is considered more preferable than others; so, to choose a method depends on the causes or other factors.</p> <p>Ventriculosubgaleal shunt (VSGS) is one of those temporary ways in which we can assure a simple and rapid CSF decompression method and not causing electrolytes or nutritional losses.</p> <p>To study the effectiveness of using VSGS compared to external Ventricular Drain (EVD) in adult hydrocephalus for temporary CSF conversion and to find out the results that help us avoid putting a permanent shunt, and last, to find the possibility of occurrence of complications.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; </strong>A retrospective observational study.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong>: The data were taken from Hospital Admission notes of fifty patients with acute hydrocephalus: 26 caused by IVH, 10 from ruptured aneurysm, 8 post-traumatic, and 6 were due to infection. In all the patients we did CSF conversion in Hospital Queen Elizabeth II, Sabah, Malaysia, from 2012 to 2015. The patients’ follow-up started from the date of surgery till the hydrocephalus is treated completely Parameters used are the dependency to the shunt and the occurrence of complications.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences Version 22.0. Chi squared test, Fisher’s exact test.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 21 (42%) patients, EVD inserted and 29 (58%) VSGS inserted. Thirty-seven (74%) patients did not need a permanent shunt; 24 (64.8%) of them were from the VSGS group (P = 0.097). EVD patients developed more complications (44.1%) in comparison to VSGS (23.5%), with a statistically significant difference P = 0.026.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: VSGS is a safe and a dependable way for adult hydrocephalus patient’s treatment, with the ability to continue the treatment for such patients in non-neurosurgical centers or even discharge the patient home, as compared to patients with EVDs. This method does not have a statistical difference to avoid putting a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, VSGS has a significant less complications than EVD.</p> Salah Mahdi Jaddoa Husham Majeed Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 98 106 Applications of Silver Nanoparticles as Antibiotics for Pathogenic Organisms: Bacteria, Fungi ,Viruses and Algae <p>Silver nanoparticles are used in the medical and engineering fields and are still of interest to scientists, possibly due to their small size compared to their efficiency. Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of silver nanoparticles in inhibiting microbes as they are used as reducing agents. Silver nanoparticles are manufactured in a variety of chemical or physical ways that may have environmental hazards due to their potential toxicity, or they are manufactured in biological, environmentally friendly and non-toxic ways.</p> <p>In this review, we first present the properties of nanoparticles and their synthesis methods and then discuss their role as inhibitors of bacteria, fungi, viruses and algae.</p> Huda Abbas Mohammed Lubna Abdul Muttalib Al-Shalah Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 107 120 Jacobi Weighted Moduli of Smoothness for Approximation by Neural Networks Application <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Moduli of smoothness are intended for mathematicians working in approximation theory, numerical analysis and real analysis. Measuring the smoothness of a function by differentiability is two grade for many purposes in approximation theory. More subtle measurement are provided by moduli of smoothness.</p> <p>Many versions of moduli of smoothness and&nbsp; K-functionals introduced by many authors. In this work we choose two of these moduli and prove that they are equivalent themselves once and with a version of K-functional twice, under certain conditions.</p> <p>As an application of our work we introduce a version of Jackson theorem for the approximation by neural networks.</p> Eman S. Bhaya Najlaa A. Hadi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 121 134 Lithofacies Analysis and Depositional Development of Zubair Formation in West Qurna Oil Field, Southern Iraq <p>This present study includes the petrography, lithofacies analysis and depositional development for the Zubair Formation in six boreholes (WQ-1, WQ-13, WQ-15, WQ-60, WQ-148 and WQ-356) within the West Qurna oil field. Zubair Formations was deposited within Mesopotamian Zone during the Barremain stage which belong to the Early Cretaceous epoch.</p> <p>The major component of Zubair succession is sandstone which classify as quartz arenite (also known as orthoquartzite) has about 92% or more quartz grains. While a rock having &gt;25% lithic fragments and subordinate feldspars are lithic arenites; those with clay content &gt;25% and subordinate lithics is a gray wacke</p> <p>Five major lithofacies within two groups of rock dominance are recognized in this succession as follow:- Quartz arenite well sorted-subrounded Lithofacies, Quartz arenite poorly sorted sub-angular Lithofacies and graywacke poorly sorted Lithofacies within the sand dominated rock; and Sandy claystone and Shale Lithofacies within clay dominated rocks. Three facies associations are distinguished in studied succession, they are: delta plain, delta front and back-shore. The microfacies analysis and reconstructed the paleoenvironments for the Barremain basin in the studied area has contributed to determine three stages matching with the observable units.</p> <p>&nbsp;Main composed of the lower unit is shale with thin beds and lenses of sandstone to divided this unit into two parts, the upper most is sandstone and the lower part is consisting of shale in the south part of studied area. This sequence is interpreted to form in a delta plain deposits was common in the north and south part of the studied area (WQ-13, WQ-1 and WQ-356), while the middle part of this area (WQ-60 and WQ-15) was closed to shore face environment. The middle unit is the thickest and characterized by alternative of shale and sand beds as Three laterally heterogeneous cycles. These three-cycle appeared clearly in the southern part of studied area, while to the north became two cycle. In the central of studied area the middle part is represented by one cycle of quartz arenite well sorted-subrounded lithofacies as a delta front and shoreface association facies. The delta plain is common association in the WQ-13 and WQ-148 as a successive of lithofacies 3, 4 and 5, while this association is alternative with back shore association to the north direction (WQ-15, 1 and 356). Upper unit is composed of sandstone as quartz arenite well sorted-subrounded lithofacies. This refer to deposition in the delta front and shore face to mark the sea level rise in all studied well except WQ-60, which represent the delta plain association facies. This cycle was marked the end of Zubair deposition during the transgression stage.</p> Rusul Hakim Ali Aiad Ali Hussien Al-Zaidy Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 135 160 The Biological and Medical Applications of Laser Light Abstract <p>The process of rapidly developing laser technology with the presence of the latest laser devices, which are constantly being introduced has become important in a variety of biological and medical fields. Low Level Laser Therapy has become of great importance for the treatment of soft tissue injuries and arthritis. An increase in cell proliferation and collagen after LLLT has already been observed in improving wound healing by improving inflammation, spread of fibroblasts, angiogenesis, collagen removal and tissue reconstruction. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using laser beams is a proven treatment for cancer, other diseases, and bacterial infections resistant to antibiotics in wounds and burns.</p> Rana A. Ghaleb Lubna Abdulazeem Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 161 165 Some Adipocytokines (Leptin, Resistin, Vesfatin) Relationships with Obesity <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Adipose tissue is widely concerned as an active endocrine organ, and have a crucial role in the&nbsp;&nbsp; innate immune system . Adipocytokines perform a role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and related metabolic complications, and also they cause both beneficial and detrimental immune and inflammatory effects. And most of these adipocytokines are physiologically important for metabolism, such as leptin, resistin, and visfatin which may serve as a missing connection between obesity and diabetes in the causal relation. Also it may&nbsp; have myriad anti-inflammatory effect. It should be considered the functional balance of the adipokines and obesity.</p> Walaa Salih Hassan Rasha kadhim Halla Muhee Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 166 172 Halophytes: What are their Defines, Important, and their Strategies to be Live in Saline Habitats? (A Review) <p>Halophytes or saline plants characterized in their ability to live and give production in saline soils or in other saline habitats. They refer to plants that can live in high salts habitats like saline marshes and saline deserts, and can give relatively a high production of biomass in such habitats. They are very important due to their different uses of them as food, fodder, drugs and many other different important. They may solve salinity problem tolerant or avoidant species by several adaptations which may by morphological, anatomical or cellular modifications. In this review tend to answer the main questions related to halophytes which including: what are their defines, important, and their strategies to be live and give good productivity &nbsp;in saline habitats?</p> Batool Mohammed Hassan Shaymaa O. H. Al-Mamoori Noor Mahmmoud Naji Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 173 181 Virulence Factors in Streptococcus pneumonia and the Role of Complement C1q in the Immune Response <p><em>Streptococcus</em> <em>pneumonia</em> is a major pathogen in humans, and causes diseases such as pneumonia and meningitis. This bacterium produces many virulence factors that participate in the mechanics of injury. The battle between human host and bacterial pathogen is extremely complex. Each side tries to outpace the other in the race for survival. Particularly in the innate immune system in humans, the complementary immune system acts as the first line of defense against invading pathogens during the course of evolution, however, the pathogen has developed multiple strategies to counter the host complement system and colonization, for survival and sustainability within the host. One of these pathogens is Streptococcus (pneumococcus), which are Gram-positive bacterial pathogens that often coexist in the human respiratory system. Depending on the host's sensitivity, pneumococcus can transform into an infectious agent that spreads within the human host and causes diseases ranging from mild to severe and potentially life-threatening diseases. This transition from the symbiont to the infectious agent is a very complex process and an understanding of this mechanism is essential in controlling pneumococcal disease. Using its complex arsenal of weapons such as surface adhesions as well as pneumococcal recruitment recruit the host's immune system. This review discusses the biological activity of several pneumococcal virulence agents and describes C1q, the first subunit of the classic complement pathway, and its role in antimicrobial reactions, as pneumococcus exploits C1q as a molecular bridge that facilitates the attachment of this bacterium to the cell surfaces of the host.</p> Hawraa Mohammed Ridha Zahraa M. AL-Taee Raflaa S.H. Hussian Dalal. M.R. Al-Shuailiyah Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 182 195 Characterization of Novel Coronavirus and Pandemic of Covid-19 : an Overview <p>In the last period of 2019, the new corona virus, currently called SARS-CoV-2, recognized by way of the reason for the spread disease of acute respiratory in China in Wuhan. During February 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) identified &nbsp;&nbsp;COVID-19, as the 2019 coronavirus disease.</p> <p>Over the past 50 years, there have been different numbers of coronary viruses that have caused a wide range of human diseases and veterinary medicine. These viruses are expected to continue to appear, develop, and cause the spread of humans and viruses because of their ability to regroup, transform them and communicate a disease to numerous species in addition cells. Investigation of future for Coronavirus will ongoing for explore many aspects of virus duplication in addition pathogenesis. First of all, understanding tendencies for the viruses involved to hurdle among species, confirm contagion in another novel host, and identify large reservoirs of corona viruses &nbsp;&nbsp;greatly help for predicting where and when possible epidemics will happen. Since bats appear an important viruses reservoir, it will be stimulating to limit how &nbsp;&nbsp;can evade developing clinically evident of disease and persistent infection. Second, determining how &nbsp;virus's non-structural and accessory proteins coded via &nbsp;remain of viruses unmarked without a identified function and also be significant to determine the act mechanisms &nbsp;of these proteins in addition to determine the &nbsp;starring role in duplication &nbsp;of viral then disease pathogenesis. These studies need to chief toward a major a plus the amount of appropriate treatment aims for control of infection. Additionally, several unique enzymes encoded via corona viruses, for example ADP-ribose-1 1-phosphatase, moreover exist in upper eukaryotes, creation their study applicable to learning common aspects of biochemistry and molecular biology. Third, likewise, obtaining a whole picture of RTC particulars will make available a background for learning replication of the unique RNA practice these viruses employ. Lastly, identifying just how coronaviruses reason disease then understanding the host's immune reaction for pathogen will greatly progress our capability to manufacture vaccines then decrease the disease burden.</p> Lubna Abdul muttalib Ashwaq M. S. Al-Jbouri Mohammed Malih Radhi Nada Khazal Kadhim Rusull Hamza Kh. Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 196 206 Combining A Cryptography and Steganography Techniques – Based Securing Transmitted Video Through Unsecure Channel <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Internet has become one of the important means used to transfer information via e-mail, social media, and others. It has become important to protect this information and find the best and most secure way to transfer and it to protect it from piracy attempts and common attacks on the Internet. In this paper, the encryption and steganography techniques are used to secure a transmitted through unsecure network. In this paper, we proposed a method for encryption images using second-order equations, then the encrypted image is embedded in the vide. The image is embedded according to the equations rather than embedding it sequentially in order to increase the security layer. The experimental results suggest that the approach proposed is achieves a high embedding ability. In addition, encryption and non-sequential selection of frames and locations for bit hiding increases the safety and robustness of the proposed system when compared to other methods of hiding information.</p> Hawra’a Razzak Radhi Majid Jabbar Jawad Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 207 215 Biostratigraphy of Qamchuqa Formation in Jambur Oil Field in Kirkuk Area <p>The Qamchuqa Formation has been studied in three wells ( Ja-15, Ja-20, Ja-22) within Jambur oil field, North East of Iraq . Three hundred and thirty five thin sections have been studied by polarizing microscope in order to determine fossils and biozones. Thirty seven species of benthic foraminifera were recognized.In addition to following fossils that recognized in Qamchuqa Formation :&nbsp; Calcareous algae – <em>Coptocampylodon fontis</em>, Rudist fragments ,Pelecypods Gastropods , Mollusks , Brachiopod , Ostracods shells&nbsp; , Echinoid fragmendes , Coral and&nbsp; Algea .</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Five biozones were observed, they are: <strong><em>Praeorbitolina cormyi – Palorbitolina lenticularis - </em></strong>concurrent Zone (of&nbsp; Early Aptian), <strong><em>Mesorbitolina parva -</em></strong> Range Zone (of Middle Aptian age)<strong><em>, Mesorbitolina texana -</em></strong> Range Zone (of Late Aptian – Early Albian,), <strong><em>Mesorbitolina subconcava</em></strong> - Range Zone (latest early Albian) and <strong><em>Orbitolina sefini</em></strong> - Range Zone (of Late Albian). The age of Qamchuqa Formation has been distinguished according to these biozones, to be as ( Aptian-Albian).</p> Wed k. Al-mamory Salam Al-Dulaimi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 216 242 Information about Diabetes Mellitus: Review <p>Diabetes mellitus&nbsp;(DM), is a group of&nbsp;<a href="">metabolic disorders</a>&nbsp;characterized by a&nbsp;<a href="">high blood sugar</a>&nbsp;level in the blood. Diabetes can cause serious health complications including heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, Symptoms of marked hyperglycemia include polyuria, polydipsia, and sometimes with polyphagia. Acute life-threatening consequences of uncontrolled diabetes are hyperglycemia with ketoacidosis. Long-term complications of diabetes include retinopathy with loss of vision; nephropathy leading to renal failure; peripheral neuropathy with risk of foot ulcers and ,Charcot joints; and cardiovascular symptoms and sexual dysfunction. Patients with diabetes have an increased incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular, peripheral arterial, cerebrovascular disease and Hypertension in people with diabetes.</p> Raghda Abass Razaq Jafar Ahmed Mahdi Rasha Abdulameer Jawad Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 243 252 A Study of Monotectic Al-Bi Alloys Rapidly Solidified from Melt <p>This paper presents experimental results and theoretical considerations to&nbsp;&nbsp; investigate the effect of rapid cooling from melt on physical properties of Al-Bi alloys. A number of monotectic Al-rich binary alloys having limited solubility in the solid state have been pointed up as desirable for many industrial applications, e.g., self-lubricated bearings, electronic materials, superconductors and optical components. Monotectic alloys undergo an invariant reaction at the monotectic temperature, in which a liquid phase, L<sub>1</sub>, is decomposed into a solid phase, S<sub>1</sub>, and a liquid phase, L<sub>2</sub>. During cooling, the minority liquid phase forms discontinuous and isolate droplets or fibers within the Al-matrix. The competition between the growth of the minority phase and the rate of displacement of the solidification interface will determine if the prevalent morphology will be formed by droplets or fibers. Chill-block melt spinning technique was used to examine the possibility of casting Al-Bi monotectic alloys with possible homogeneous microstructure. The resulting microstructure was analysed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrical resistivity, thermal parameters, internal friction, thermal diffusivity, elastic moduli and hardness of the melt-spun ribbons have been investigated as a function of composition. The results reveal that several combinations of strength, hardness, enthalpy, entropy change, resistivity and internal friction can be generated from the alloys to meet the needs of antifriction applications.</p> Sanaa Razzaq Abbas Mohammed S. Gumaan Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 253 275 N- Terminal Pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide among Patients with Metabolic Syndrome in Duhok City <p><strong>Background and objectives:</strong> Previous studies have demonstrated that serum NT-proBNP was lower in the general population with MetS. NPs are a set of peptide-hormones that are well known for their role in cardiovascular homeostasis. The present study aims at determining the NT-proBNP serum levels in patients who have MetS in comparison to subjects apparently healthy and inhabiting Duhok city/ Kurdistan Region/Iraq.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross sectional research was conducted between 1<sup>st</sup> of June 2019 and 29<sup>th</sup> of May 2020 at Duhok Diabetic Clinic. NT-pro BNP level was determine in 80 subjects with MetS (20 Males and 60 Females; 20-70 years) and 20 apparently healthy subjects. The data were analyzed by using the SPSS software version 23.T-test was used to compare between proportions.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong>The mean ± SD of all demographic parameters (WC, SBP, and DBP) were significantly higher in subjects with MetS in comparison to apparently healthy subjects except age which was none significant.The parameters of biochemistry(triglyceride, TC,FBS, and insulin) in subjects with MetS also were substantially higher compared to apparently healthy subjects with the exception of HDL-C and NT-proBNP, which in apparently healthy subjects were higher compared to the MetS. The current data indicate that the NT-proBNP differentiates significantly between ages, BMI, DBP, FBS, and TG, with TC (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Metabolic components are correlated with a lower serum concentration NT-proBNP. These figure out increase the probability that decreased serum levels of NT-proBNP are an indicator of MetS, which could have important pathophysiological and clinical consequences.</p> Rami M. Muhammad Dhia M. Sulaiman Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 276 288 Review Paper on Image and Video Based Steganography <p>With the great development in electronic and network information technologies, and in light of some circumstances that impose work on the Internet, which is considered to be an insecure environment for confidential information, therefore maintaining data security has become an important priority. The most important techniques used to maintain the confidentiality of the transferred data and not subject it to attackers are concealment and encryption, and these two technologies also depend on the medium that transmits the secret data, whether it is an image file, sound or video. Steganography is the science of embedding digital data in such a way no one can doubt its existence. Encryption is another technology used to protect data, when used with steganography increases the power of information protection. This paper provides an overview of techniques for hiding textual information within image and video files. This study aims to provide a summary of the method that is safer, more secure, and the ability of its payload to hide data.</p> Rusul Mohammed Neamah Saif M. Alghazaly Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 289 301 A Review of Image Steganography Techniques <p>Image steganography is one in &nbsp;techniques of securing data as a cover image. In the other hand, since secret communications and development of multimedia contents, stenography of the techniques&nbsp; reflect important roles. In based are reflected stegnography system, the quality of stego image and the capacity of the cover image are important side of the image, evaluate performance and comparison of&nbsp; techniques are depending on these parameters in steganography system. There are existing embedding techniques that aim to protect information, and a higher bit embedding rate is an important challenge in designing a steganographic system. &nbsp;This paper highlights a literature review of the classification spatial domain (beads on pixel value) approach&nbsp; of image steganography; include, (i) LSB steganography, (ii) PVD based steganography, (iii)GLM based steganography, (iv) PPM based steganography. The goal of this paper is to supply a comprehensive summary of&nbsp; existing works in terms of ideals, and to highlight the strong and weak points of current&nbsp; techniques.</p> Sura I. Mohammed Ali Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 302 311 Low Dose of Pizotifen in Migraine Prevention: A Comparison with Topiramate <p>Background &amp; Objective: Pizotifen is an alternative option for prophylactic treatment of migraine headache. This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of pizotifen with topiramate; one of the most-widely used drugs in migraine prevention. Methods: This was a single blind, randomized, parallel-group study. After a 4-week baseline evaluation, patients with episodic migraine were randomly assigned to get either to piramate or pizotifen for a period of 12 weeks. Patients were asked to fill a headache diary through the study. Headache characteristics and the possible side effects were evaluated throughout and at the end of trial. Results: Sixty patients aged 20 to 49 were recruited to the study. With both drugs, the frequency, intensity and duration of headaches were significantly reduced (p &lt; 0.05). Except for headache duration, pizotifen was significantly superior to &nbsp;topiramate in the headache parameters assessed. Total reported side effects were initially higher inpatients who received pizotifen (37 vs. 22; P= 0.038); however, persistent side effects were lower for pizotifen (6 vs. 10; P= 0.22).Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that pizotifen is a safe and effective drug in migraine prevention.</p> Mazin M Mohsin Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 312 320 Study Molding of Vortex state in the Atmosphere <p>The Earth's atmosphere as a whole has a very complex system of movements that changes over time. The main features of these movements are repeated from year to year and are well displayed on average and climatic maps, which are the starting point for conclusions about the general circulation of the atmosphere. So it is known that the movement of the atmosphere has a vortex character. There are basic states of three-dimensional vortex motion, in which low pressure convergence leads to an upward motion, and high pressure divergence leads to a downward flow in a vortex motion (tornado). These states of the three -dimensional velocity field can be described using the expansion of the convection velocity in terms of stream and potential functions, which describe the spiral structures of this movement. In this paper, simple partial differential equations are introduced that satisfy the ground state of three-dimensional vortex motion. It is also shown that when Re → ∞, the vortex motion degenerates into geostrophic wind, and the corresponding state of vortex motion is replaced by the geostrophic state.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Qasim S. Kadhim Alaa N. Hadi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 321 325 The Effect of Hearing the Customer’s Voice in Achieving Sustainable Competitive Advantage: An Exploratory Study of the Opinions of Employees of Baghdad Soft Drinks Company <p>The research aims to achieve sustainable competitive advantage by hearing the customer’s voice and paying attention to his desires and requirements in Baghdad Soft Drinks Company. The research problem was through questions raised about the relationship and effect of hearing the customer’s voice in achieving the competitive advantage of Baghdad Soft Drinks Company. To achieve the research goal, two main hypotheses were tested. And a secondary one, and the questionnaire was used as a tool to collect data by distributing (137) questionnaires from which (100) questionnaires were retrieved for analysis, and the data were analyzed using the (Spss) program, and the research reached a good level in terms of the researched company's interest in the voice of its customers in addition to an investigation My relationship and the impact between the customer's voice and the sustainable competitive advantage, and the research recommended many recommendations, the most important of which is conducting periodic interviews with the company's customers and paying attention to their desires and suggestions about developing and improving the company's products.</p> Basma M. Al-Husseini Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 326 354 On Modules with Finite Spanning Isodimension <p>We introduce modules with finite spanning isodimension. Let be an module&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;is called module with finite spanning isodimension, if for every strictly decreasing sequence, there exists a positive integer &nbsp;such that &nbsp;is isosmall for each . In the following sense, we define isosmall submodule, a submodule &nbsp;of an module &nbsp;is called isosmall, if&nbsp; , then&nbsp;for any submodule &nbsp;of . Some other classes are studied for instances isomaximal and many results are proved. On the other hand, we determine that the ring of endomorphisms of an isosimple module is a local ring.</p> Payman M. Hamaali Adil K. Jabbar Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 355 364 Obesity: Causes and Consequences <p>Obesity complex health problem caused by a variety of reasons such as individual behavior and genes. Behaviors can include lack of activity, physical activity, drug use, dietary patterns and other types of exposure. Additional contributing factors include environment of physical activity, skills, food, food marketing, and promotion.</p> <p>Obesity is dangerous because it linked to worse outcomes for mental health and lower quality of life. In the United States and around the world, obesity also linked to the leading causes of death, including diabetes, heart disease stroke, and some types of cancer. Obesity is a disorder of excess fats in the body. It is a chronic condition with a complex interaction between environmental and genetic factors. It related to high blood cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, fatty acid levels, insulin hypersensitivity and the accumulation of excess fat mass. More than one billion adults are overweight and 300 million of them at least are obese. More than a billion adults are overweight and at least 300 million are obese. It determined by the BMI and further estimated by the percentage of body fat and total body fat.&nbsp; Obesity is a danger for many secondary conditions such as cardiovascular disorders, retinopathy, neuropathy, pathological insulin resistance and cancer. Multiple factors that alter the incidence of obesity involve sex, age, and smoking, levels of growth hormone and metabolism of skeletal muscle.</p> Shaima Ahmed Rahim Manar Mohammad Hasan AL-Murshidi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 365 371 A Anatomical Study of Fruits for Some Genera of Fabaceae Family Grown in Makhoul Mountain–Salah Al-Din – Iraq <p>The fruits of six species belonging to four genera of the Fabaceae family were studied. Wild species of dicotyledons that grow in the study area and in the foothills of Makhoul Mountain in Salah al-Din governorate were studied.&nbsp; The fruiting layer between them, and the shape of the cells that made up each layer, all fruits consisted of three layers, the exocarp, the mesocarp, and the endocarp.&nbsp; The thickness of each layer was different in all species. It was found that the fruiting envelope is thicker in the type Medicago polymorpha L, as the average thickness of the coat reaches (342) micrometers, and the thickness of (146.9) micrometers was recorded in the type M. monspeliaca.&nbsp; As for the shapes of cells and their types, remarkable variations were recorded, as they had several shapes (oval, spherical, elliptical, semi-oval, elongated) and this makes them of taxonomic significance even between the phenotypically close types, which confirmed the current study, in addition to&nbsp; Lack of anatomical studies of the fruits of wild species in Iraq.</p> Mohammed Adnan Hashem Al-Blesh Ibrahim Jassim Sultan Al-Dulaimi Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 372 380 Some Generalized Difference Cesàro Double Sequence Space of Fuzzy Real Number Defined by Double Orlicz Function <p>In this paper we introduce some generalized difference Cesàro double sequence space of fuzzy real number by using double orlicz function . and we study their different properties like completeness , solidity, symmwtricity etc. . Also we obtain some inclusion relation involving these double sequence space.</p> Ali Hussein Battor Hasan Ali Moussa Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of University of Babylon 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 381 391