JOURNAL OF UNIVERSITY OF BABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>OURNAL of <strong>U</strong>NIVERSITY of <strong>B</strong>ABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences, (<span style="color: #008000;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon for Pure and Applied Sciences in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong> is a scientific peer-reviewed open access journal publishing high-quality research and review papers at the forefront of modern research describing significant developments in Pure and Applied Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Online ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>2312-8135</strong></span></a></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Print ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>1992-0652</strong></span></a></span></p> University of Babylon en-US JOURNAL OF UNIVERSITY OF BABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences 1992-0652 Gamma Dose Measuring for the Rice Sample in Slemani City Markets, Kurdistan Region – Iraq <p style="text-align: justify;">In this study, the Radium-226, Thoruim-232 and Potassuim-40 in the selected fourteen types of rice samples were collected from local markets in Slemani city- Kurdistan region- Iraq. The concentrations were determined by using scintillation detector (NaI (Tl) -3x3). The results of the Radium-226, Thoruim-232, and Potassuim-40 specific activities in rice samples were ranged (0.55 – 5.7) Bq Kg<sup>-1</sup>, (0.6 – 4.66) BqKg<sup>-1</sup> and (16.11 – 20.02) Bq Kg<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The average value of the radium equivalent activity ( ) was below the average worldwide values as reported by UNSCEAR. The values of total annual effective dose ( ) of the rice samples, ranged from 64.66 to 355.62 . The value of each of Thailand- Kallasher and Slemany_ Banikhellan samples were (355.62, 344.38), which were higher than the average worldwide value 290 &nbsp;as reported by UNSCEAR. In general, the mean value was 196.20. Therefore, the studied samples are safe in term of radiological health hazards.</p> Adil M. Hussein Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-05-22 2019-05-22 27 4 1 7 Mitral Valve Surgery in Ibn Albitar Center for Cardiac Surgery from 2004 To 2018 <p>Discuss the outcome of the mitral valve surgery in Ibn Al Bitar Center for cardiac surgery from&nbsp; 2004 to 2018&nbsp; with 2250 patients, Assesses the factors of risk for surgical mortality in those who perform surgery for mitral valve and Improve that the outcome of mitral valve replacement much better than other types of mitral valve surgery. The type of this research is a retrospective of a total of 2250 patients who performed mitral valve surgery from&nbsp; 2004 to 2018 in Ibn Al Bitar Center for cardiac surgery (Baghdad /Iraq). The mitral valve surgery was mitral valve replacement 82.5 %, closed mitral commissurotomy 7.1%, open mitral commissurotomy&nbsp; 4.9% and redo mitral valve surgery&nbsp; 5.5 %. There are only 22 patients die and the causes of the death were Hemorrhage and cardiac tamponade in 9 patients (40%),&nbsp; infective endocarditis in 6 patients (27.2%), heart failure in 4 patients (18.1%), and thromboembolism in 3 patients (13.6%). &nbsp;This study showed that Mitral valve surgery will be performed with a suitable operative mortality that compares favourably with leads to different printed series and future survival for bicuspid valve replacement square measure wonderful addition to it the incidence to reoperation was considerably less than closed and open commissurotomy, so the bicuspid valve replacement is that the best style of bicuspid valve surgery.</p> Walla Luay Al_Falluji Talat Rifat Rahman Ammar Naif Qassim Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-05-22 2019-05-22 27 4 8 19 Microscopic and Molecular Diagnosis of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Erbil city-Iraq <p style="text-align: justify;">This study was carried out in consultation clinic of the Chest and Respiratory Diseases Center Erbil city-Iraq from&nbsp; 1<sup>st</sup> January to 31 December 2018.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The results explained that from total of 1986 consecutive suspects with TB disease in Erbil city 103(%5.2) were pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) infection depended on microscopic examination of sputum specimens with AFB stain and sputum culture on Lowenstein Jensen Media While&nbsp;&nbsp; histopathology screening&nbsp; (Biopsy- In cooperation with&nbsp; histopathology's physician ) indicate that from 1883 (%94.8)&nbsp; negative cases&nbsp;&nbsp; 8(%0.4) was&nbsp; extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) infection.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;According to nationality, most cases were Iraqi from Erbil city52 (%50.5) while the number of non-national patients Syrian was 13(%68.4)and others were from different nationalities 6(%31.6), while Iraqi emigrant patients were 32(%31.1). According to age group, most cases were at age&nbsp; group25-34 and 15-24years&nbsp; were 27(%26.2) and 22(%21.3) respectively and only 2(% 1.9) patients were more than 65 years old. Most of the patients were male 55(%53.4) and 48 (%46.6) were females.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Detection of&nbsp; (TB) by GeneXpertMTB/RIF assay for contributing to the rapid diagnosis of&nbsp;the &nbsp;disease and their resistance to drug rifampin (RIF) indicated that&nbsp; all 103(%100) samples were positive to GeneXpertMTB the target DNA detected by real-time PCR which is needed to start treatment quickly,&nbsp; while in 11(%10.6)&nbsp;&nbsp; samples the Rifampicin&nbsp; resistance DNA was detected which needs treatment with second-line agents. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicate that diagnosis and detection of TB&nbsp; infection by microscopy, culture and rapid diagnosis by&nbsp; PCR have the same accuracy.</p> Payman Akram Hamasaeed Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-05-22 2019-05-22 27 4 20 29 Determination of Radioactivity Concentrations on Sediment the Euphrates River on Babylon Governorate <p style="text-align: justify;">In the current study determination of the natural and artificial activity level on samples sediment the Euphrates River on Babylon&nbsp; governorate using&nbsp; -ray spectrometry technique with NaI(Tl) detector. Where 50 samples of sediment Euphrates river.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The&nbsp; results revealed that the average values in( Bq/kg) for Uranium , Thorium &nbsp;Potassium &nbsp;And , and samples sediment were ( 21.815, 5.326, 273.377, 0.879) respectively. The hazard indexes were also calculated, where the radium average equivalent activity Ra<sub>eq</sub> was 56.084 , And Hazard index for -ray ( ) was 0.420 , The average absorbed does in Air (AD) was 27.347, The results of the present study have shown that the rates of Specific activity and radiological hazard effects Rate for Gamma ray in samples sediment the Euphrates River on Babylon governorate were all lower&nbsp; than the value of the global limit.</p> Hayder Hameed Saeed Ammar A. Battawy Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 27 4 30 35 Relationship of Follicular Size with Dimensions of Genital System of Female Iraqi Buffaloes <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The present study has been conducted at laboratories of department of animal production techniques, AI-Musaib Technical College during the period extended from march 2014 to march 2015 to determine relationship of follicular size with dimensions of genital system of female Iraqi buffaloes. One hundred and twenty genital system of adults non- pregnant buffaloes slaughtered at abattoirs of Babylon province were collected at the time of slaughter and transported to the laboratory within 2 hours. The. A total of 240 ovaries were removed and collected. The diameter of the ovarian follicles were measured, divided into three categories, small (2-5 mm), medium (6-10 mm) and large (11-20 mm) . The results showed that the ovaries in local buffaloes appear as oval , light pinkish , firmed consistency and smooth. A significant increased (P &lt;0.05) in the dimensions of right and left ovaries ( length, width and thickness) in the genital system which their ovaries contained large and medium follicles compared with that contained small follicles.&nbsp; A significant increased (P &lt;0.05) was observed in length of right and left of ovarian tube in the genital system which their ovaries contained large and medium follicles compared with that contained small follicles. The result of study also showed that significant increased (P &lt;0.05) in length and diameters of body and cervix of uterus and right and left of uterine horns in the genital system which their ovaries contained large and medium follicles compared with that contained small follicles.&nbsp; We conclude from this study that changing the size of follicle from small to large has a significant effect on the dimensions of the genital system of females Iraqi buffaloes.</p> Maher Abbas H. Al. Mamory Hashim M. Al-Rubaei Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 27 4 36 44 The Effect of Trigonella foemun-gracum Extract on the Fungi that Isolated from the Libraries Door <p style="text-align: justify;">The study&nbsp; included the isolation and diagnosis of the fungi from the door&nbsp; of the laboratories&nbsp; (microbology&nbsp; ,technical biology )in the technical&nbsp; institute of Babylon from the medical department.&nbsp; The study appeared many&nbsp; of the different kinds of fungi<em>: Absidia sp,Candidia sp, Aspergillus&nbsp; sp,Penicillum&nbsp; sp. </em></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The&nbsp; rate of appearance of the type of the fungi&nbsp; in&nbsp; microbology laboratory&nbsp; is the higher than the technical biology laboratory other.The rate of appearance of the fungi&nbsp;&nbsp; <em>Aspergillus niger</em> was 36.8% and <em>Absidia</em> <em>,Penicililum </em>&nbsp;was 21.05% , <em>Candida sp </em>&nbsp;was 15.7 %&nbsp; , <em>Aspergillus flavus</em>&nbsp; 5.2% while&nbsp; in the technical biology the fungi <em>Aspergillus&nbsp; terrus </em>was 15.7% and the fungi&nbsp; <em>Penicililum sp,Candida</em>&nbsp; <em>albcans</em>,<em> Apergillus niger</em> was 20%&nbsp; <em>,&nbsp; Absidia </em>sp <em>,Alternaria</em> sp was&nbsp; 10%.The study&nbsp; showed&nbsp; the influence&nbsp; of the heating&nbsp; water&nbsp; extract&nbsp; hot watering&nbsp; extract&nbsp; the race track in the concentration which is used( 10,20,30, 40) mg /ml on some of fungi. The rate of reduction is appeared 100% of the&nbsp; fungi <em>Candida&nbsp; albicans&nbsp; </em>in the concentration (30,40) mg/ml and&nbsp; the&nbsp; range of the diameter colony of the yeast <em>Candida&nbsp; albicans i</em>n the concentration 30 mg/ml the (1)sanatamtar. While the fungi <em>Aspergillus&nbsp; niger </em>in the concentration (10,20)mg/ml is not given any resistance toward the extract.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Duaa Hassan Hadi Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 27 4 45 51 Study of the Effect of Laser on the Structural and Electrical Properties of the Compound Bi2-(x+y)CdyAgx Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+δ Superconductor at High Temperatures <p style="text-align: justify;">This study included the preparation of composite samples (Bi<sub>2-(x+y)</sub>Cd<sub>y</sub>Ag<sub>x</sub> Sr<sub>2</sub>Ca<sub>2</sub>Cu<sub>3</sub>O<sub>10+δ</sub>&nbsp; )by solid state reaction method and under hydro static pressure (8ton/cm<sup>2</sup>) interaction and annealing temperature&nbsp;&nbsp; (850 C) also determine the effect of the laser on the structural and electrical properties in the compound in various concentrations of x where x=(0,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.4) observed by examining the XRD , the best ration of cooperation for (x) is 0.3 as the value of a=b=5.3799(A) , c=36.22(A) showed that the installation of tetragonal structure.</p> Omar najah lateef najah lateef Abdul Kareem Dahash Ali Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 27 4 52 57 Study of Etiquettes Behavior and Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of a Polymeric Basic Composite <p style="text-align: justify;">In this research the composites materials were prepared by (hand Layout).The composite material consist of the base material(Unsaturated polyester Resin) and consist from the support material is the (Carbide Tungsten) With different Weight ratios (0 ,0.75 ,1.5 ,2.25, 3%) respectively .We have studied the adhesiveness characteristic of the Wear when we change the forcing load for all the specimens and we deepened three loads (5 ,10 ,15 N) with the stability of speed ,we found out that the Wear rate increases with the increase of forcing load we also examined the (Tensile and Hardness) and we found that the value of the hardness increases with the increase of weight fracturing to get its higher value in the rate of 3% .&nbsp;</p> Esraa Habeeb Mohsoun Adnan Raad Ahmed Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-05-29 2019-05-29 27 4 58 65 Study of Mechanical and Physical Properties of Epoxy Resins Supported by Natural Materials <p style="text-align: justify;">In this research the composites materials were prepared by (hand layout). The composites material consist of the base material (epoxy resin) and consist from the support material is the powder of olive seeds with micro size of this material is (53µm) with different weight ratios (0, 0.75, 1.5, 2.25, 3 %) respectively. Also (tensile and impact) and thermal conductivity were studied. The results showed that the best was to test the impact at the weight ratio (1.5 %). As for the thermal conductivity test was the best result in the weight ratio (3%)&nbsp;</p> Mohammed Khalil Aelewe Adnan Raad Ahmed Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-05-29 2019-05-29 27 4 66 71 Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus Supernatant on the Biofilm Formation of Some Pathogenic Bacteria <p style="text-align: justify;">This study included the investigation of the ability of some gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species to produce viscous layer which plays a role in biofilm formation and complication of pathogenic infections and resistance to antibiotic therapy.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Forty-five bacterial isolates were used in this study, they include&nbsp;<em>Escherichia coli</em>(13 isolates), <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>(10 isolates), <em>Acintobacter baummanni</em> (10 isolates), <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em> (7 isolates) and <em>Enterobacter aerogines</em> (5 isolates).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Two methods were used to detect biofilm production which includes: Congo red agar medium (CRA) and Microtiter (MTP) method.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The results showed that the Microtiter plate method was more sensitive for slime layer detection as the rate of production was 48.88% from all isolates as compared with 42.22% positive results in Congo red agar method. There are clear differences in moderate and negative results for both methods.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Also, study resistance isolates to antibiotics, The results showed that &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">all isolates were 100% sensitive to Imipenem and Amikacin, while the isolates were resistance 28.8% to Tobramycin, &nbsp;whereas Norfloxacin resistance was only by <em>Acintobacter baummanni</em>, with 22.2%, While the ratio of resistant of isolates to gentamicin was 31.1%.</p> Khitam Ali Obaid Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-06-02 2019-06-02 27 4 72 90 Effect of Alcoholic Extracts of Mentha Piperita Roots on Culex Pipiens Mosquitoes <p style="text-align: justify;">The study aimed to know effects of alcohol extract of <em>Mentha piperita</em> plant roots on larva and hatching eggs of <em>Culex pipiens</em> mosquitoes after exposure to different concentrations (100, 300, 500, 700, 900) mg/l from extracts. The results appeared that percentage of larva mortalities was (37, 55, 63, 72, 91) %, (10, 24, 33, 42, 76) %, (16, 28, 41, 66, 67) % and (12, 18, 20, 23, 47) % for first, second, third and fourth phases and LC<sub>50 </sub>was (280), (680), (600) and (more than 900) mg/l respectively, and percentage of hatching eggs (81, 78, 76, 73, 60) % and LC<sub>50</sub> (more than 900) mg/l. Also, results didn’t show significant differentiation between the percentage of larva mortalities stages but showed it among the percentage of hatching eggs in the level of probability (0.05(. the concentration showed positive correlation coefficients with the percentage of mortalities and negative correlation coefficient with the percentage of hatching eggs.</p> May Hameed Mohammad AL-Dehamee Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-06-02 2019-06-02 27 4 91 97 Physical Properties of (Basalt-Ni) System by Thermal Spray Flame Technique <p style="text-align: justify;">Many surfaces suffer cracks and external corrosion such as turbo blades and oil pipes. In order to solve these problems are used coatings of high durability and low cost. In the current research, the power of the basalt with multiple oxides supported by metal (Ni) 50% was sprayed models with thermal spraying by flame and at multiple spraying distances of (10,12,14,16,18,20) cm after the preparation of the models coated on a base of alloy steel, the process of sintering of the samples at (700, 900, 1100) ℃ and within two hours have been done. The mechanical tests were (strength adhesion, porosity, hardness, wear, and tear) (SEM) for prepared samples before and after sintering. The results showed that the best spraying distance was 16 cm and the best heat treatment is ( (1100 ℃), depending on the results of the adhesion strength tests at (24.43 MPa) and (8.653%) porosity, (1140 Hv) and the hardness of the Vickers and at a constant sliding speed (12000 cm/min). The results of the scanning electron microscopy showed clear surface consistency after thermal conductivity with a few pores and treatments the best (1100.).</p> Basil S. Ahmed Ismael . K. Jassim Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-06-02 2019-06-02 27 4 98 108 A Review of Content Based Image Mining System <p>In recent years, with the spread of the internet, there is a large amount of data available at it. Therefore, it becomes necessary to find fast search engines to retrieve images and documents. Image retrieval is a very significant area in digital image processing. To understand and learn more about "image retrieval system", the current study presents a review to describe the types of image retrieval techniques, explain the advantages and disadvantages of them. Moreover, this paper reviews different research studies and methodologies that applied to the area of CBIR.</p> Manar Abdulkareem Al-Abaji Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-08-21 2019-08-21 27 4 109 114 Effect of Foliar Application of Amino Acid Drin and Applied Humic Acid to Soil for Seedlings of Roses (Rosa sp) <p>An experiment for the agricultural season2017-2018 was carried out with <em>Rosa sp</em>in lath hose in Plant production Dept. Technical College Al-Mussaib in order to study the effect of the amino acid the Drin and Humic acid in some vegetative and floral qualities are Included(Plant height, number of branches plant<sup>-1</sup>, leaf area, number of leaves per plant, number of flowers, leaf content of chlorophyll , nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium)The Experiment&nbsp; included two factors, the first factor, foliar spray of amino acid Drin of three concentrations (0, 4, 8 ml.L<sup>-1</sup>), 2nd&nbsp; factor was soil application&nbsp; of&nbsp; Humic acid concentrations&nbsp; (0, 4 ml.L<sup>-1</sup>) and tree seedlings for each treatment with three replicates . The cutting was planted at the beginning of December&nbsp; In polyethylene bags after filling it with the loam soil the bags were irrigated and followed up during the research period, seedlings were sprayed with the Drin in three dates (1, 15 and 30 April 2018). A Factorial experience has been applied with a Completely Randomized Design&nbsp; (CRD) was applied and all treatments were randomized, the statistical analysis of the data was performed using the Genstat 2010 and the mean of the treatments was measured with the least significant difference at the 5%. Results showed that the Drin with a concentration of 8 ml. L<sup>-1</sup> gave the significant rate in the qualities (Plant height, number of branches plant-1, leaf area, number of leaves per plant, number of flowers, leaf content of chlorophyll, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium).&nbsp;&nbsp; On the other hand, Humic acid with 4 ml. L <sup>-1</sup> was significantly in studied traits. Interaction between the treatment of Drin at 8 ml. L<sup>-1&nbsp; </sup>with humic acid&nbsp; 4 ml. L<sup>-1</sup> give the highest rate in the studied traits.</p> Akram Abdul Kadhim Hadi Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-08-21 2019-08-21 27 4 115 120 Principally Pseudo-Injective Semimodule <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In this paper, the connotation principally pseudo-injective semimodule which is a generalization of the notion principally quasi-injective semimodule will be introduced, we study some properties of principally pseudo-injective semimodule. Relationship between principally pseudo-injective and principally quasi-injective semimodule is given. A semimodule is called principally pseudo-injective (shortly, P.P.-injective) if for any cyclic subsemimodule <em>Ų</em> of, any monomorphism from <em>Ų</em> into can be extended to an endomorphism of.</p> Khitam S. H. Aljebory Asaad M. A. Alhossaini Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-08-21 2019-08-21 27 4 121 127 Residual Coolant Quantity in High Pressure Vessel Of PWR–440 <p>The dynamic behavior of the remaining thermal carrier at different interval times in the high-pressure cylinder of a VVER – 440 MW reactor has been studied, when the sudden leakage occurred in the first cooling loop. The study included the effect of the diameter and the location of the leakage hole, in addition to the temperature of the thermal coolant within the first cooling loop prior to the start of the leakage process.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; An experimental equation was developed for the distance of the remaining thermal carrier within the high-pressure cylinder as a function of time-based on the relative diameter, the relative height of the coolant flow and the relative temperature of the thermal coolant. Important conclusions are made that could contribute to building nuclear safety systems for reactors of the type (Pressurized Water Reactor), PWR– 440 with the power of 440 Mw.</p> Jamal Mohammed Rashid Abda Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-08-21 2019-08-21 27 4 128 134 Effect of Using Ginger Roots Powder and Pure Allicin in Fattening Awassi Lambs Rations on Productive Performance and the Accessory Cut Parts of Carcasses <p>The research has been conducted to investigate the effect of ginger roots powder with allicin in the fattening of Awassi lambs rations with its effect on productive traits as well as the secondary cuts parts of carcasses.</p> <p>A total number of 28 Awassi lambs were used in the research , those lambs were randomly distributed into 7 treatments, lambs fed on 4 experimental rations as follows the first ration was concentrated ration without any supplement (control), the second ration supplemented with 3.0 kg/ton of allicin, the third ration supplemented with 2.0 kg/ton ginger powder, the fourth ration supplemented with a combination of allicin (1.5 kg /ton) and ginger powder (1.0 kg/ton).</p> <p>Lambs fed by group feeding along with the experiment which had been lasted 91 days.</p> <p>The productive traits were studied such as a daily and total weight gain as well as feed conversion ratio and the consumed quantity of concentrated and rough feed.</p> <p>Twenty-one lambs were slaughtered (three lambs for each treatment)&nbsp; to study the secondary cuts parts of the carcasses.</p> <p>Results revealed no significant differences among treatments in the initial and final weights and daily and total weight gains.&nbsp;</p> <p>There were no significant differences in the consumed feed among treatments and feed conversion ratio.</p> <p>Results indicated also nonsignificant differences in weights of the head among treatments. Meanwhile, there were significant differences (P&lt;0.05) in skin and legs weights among treatments.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ahmed H. Mohammed Jameel S . Lazim Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-08-21 2019-08-21 27 4 135 142 The Vertical Distribution of Distribution of Winds in Urban Area at Hillah City <p>The adapted meteorological elements in this study, wind speed, and air temperature were used in order to calculate the variation of wind speed with altitude, at Hillah city center during 2017. Wind speed and air temperature were observed for two different heights 10 m, 15 m. These observations have been done for 24 hours under various conditions of atmospheric stability. Richardson number was calculated as an indicator to estimate the conditions of stability,&nbsp; it should be noted that most of the observations were within unstable and neutral conditions. Roughness indicators such as roughness length and zero displacement length were used which determined from previous studies performed at the study area. In order to determine the horizontal wind speed, the observations were taken at deferent heights within the boundary layer by using the logarithmic wind profile which involves the indicator of stability and frictional wind speed. In addition, the correction coefficient of the Richardson number was calculated through stable and unstable conditions. Besides, the horizontal wind speed was calculated and then compared with the practical values.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Ali. T. Mekhalif Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-08-21 2019-08-21 27 4 143 142 Estimation of Enrofloxacin Residues in Broilers Tissues Before and After Heat Treatments <p>The research had been conducted to the resid assess the use of Enrofloxacin in broiler tissues before and after heat treatments. A total number of 60, on day-old broiler chicks, were given Enrofloxacin (10%) at a dose of 1ml /2 letter of drinking water at 38-40 days old. Birds had been euthanized at 41,43 and 45 days. assessment of Enrofloxacin residue was estimated in their muscles and livers before and after heat treatments. Results illustrated a significant difference of Enrofloxacin residues in pectoral muscles at 41,43 and 45 days before heat treatment and it was non-significant after heat treatment in the same days. Moreover, there were high Significant differences (P&lt;0.01)&nbsp;&nbsp; at boiling, grilling, and microwaves as compared with the control. Likewise, there were no significant differences of the residues in the thigh muscle between days of the study but it was highly significant (P&lt;0.01) in comparison with boiling, grilling, and microwaves treatments at the same days of the study as compared with the control. Results revealed also no significant differences at liver tissues at the days of the study as compared with the control. Meanwhile, it was significant (P&lt;0.05) at microwaves treatments but it was non-significant in days and it was highly significant (P&lt;0.01) by boiling, grilling, and microwaves as compared with the control.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Mohammed.R. Obaid Ghassan.R. Mossa Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-08-21 2019-08-21 27 4 155 161 Study the Effect of Lead Acetate and the Water Extracted (Melissa Officinalis) on Physiological and Antioxidative State of the Seminal Fluid of Rooster, Ross 308 <p>The study was carried out in the Laboratories of Al-Mussyab Technical college and in biology Department/Babylon university and Al-Jafflawy Avian farm in Babylon. During the period from October 2018 until March 2019&nbsp; to investigate the effect water extracted of <em>Melissa officinalis</em> and Lead acetate in drinking water on semen physiological parameter and antioxidant status of &nbsp;Ross 308 Roosters.</p> <p>The study was held on 100 Roosters of Ross 308 at the age of 56-60 weeks with average weight 5-6 Kg. The Roosters were randomly distributed in equal groups. The First group(A) was given distilled water which regarded as control. The second group (B) was given the water extracted of <em>Melissa officinalis</em> leaves in the level of 100mg/Kg of body weight/L. The third group (C) was given Lead acetate in drinking water 0.5 mg/Kg of body weight/L. The Fourth group (D) which was given water extract of <em>Melissa officinalis</em> (100mg/Kg of B.W/L) and (0.5mg/Kg of B.W/L) of Lead acetate in drinking water. The semen was collected weekly to evaluate the ejaculated volume concentration, abnormalities, sperm resistance to salt and level of individual and mass mortality. The antioxidant status was evaluated by measuring malondialdehyde ( MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) also, body and testes weight was gain weekly.</p> <p>The study demonstrated that there was a significant increase in seminal ejaculate volume and concentration, salt-resistance and individual and mass mortality in the group(B) which given the water extracted of <em>Melissa officinalis</em>, and there was a significant increase in seminal abnormalities in the group(C) which given Lead acetate in drinking water. So the study demonstrated that there was a significant increase in TAC Level in seminal plasma of group(B) when there was a significant increase in Level of MDA in seminal plasma of group(C).</p> Shadan M.H. AL-Mamouri Eftekhar M.K. AL-Najar Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-08-25 2019-08-25 27 4 162 168 Study the Effect of Thickness on Optical Properties of Polymer PMMA Thin Films Preparated by Spin Coating Method <p>In this research, study the effect of thickness on the optical properties for polymer poly(methyl methacrylate),that the&nbsp; films were prepared&nbsp; by spin coating method. Some of optical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate)film&nbsp; have studied, which includes (energy gap , absorbance spectrum, transmittance&nbsp; spectrum, reflectance ,extinction coefficient, refractive index, absorption coefficient, imaginary and real dielectric constant) ,this study shows that having different properties due to the difference in thickness .The measurements were taken for different thickness (206,116,87,66,47 nm&nbsp; ) and different number of rotation (1000,2000,3000,4000,5000 rpm) respectively.</p> Ahmed Shaker Hussein Mohammed Hadi Shinen Mohammed Sami Abdali Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-08-25 2019-08-25 27 4 169 177 Effect of Foliar Fertilization by Two Types of Fertilizers on Growth and Yield of Cucumber (Omega Variety) under Protected Environment Conditions <p>The experiment was conducted during the winter season in 2018 under a plastic house at Azawia- Babylon in (C.R.D) design with three replicates consisted of seven treatments such as a spray of foliar nutrition biomin 221with concentration 1‚1.25‚1.5&nbsp; ml. liter-1 water and folic with concentration of 1‚1.5‚2 &nbsp;ml. litre<sup>-1 </sup>water, as well as a control treatment (without spraying) on cucumber plant (Omega variety), were grown in plastic house as follows three times ‚ The first spraying was conducted during flowering and the second spraying after two weeks of the first and the third after two weeks of the second. This study aims to determine the effect of foliar spray by nutritions biomin 221 and folic in growth and yield of cucumber planted in a plastic house. Results indicated that in vegetative growth characteristics (plant length, the number of leaves and dry weight of the shoot) and fruiting growth characteristics (fruit long, fruit weight ‚ the number of fruits.plant<sup>-1</sup> and the one plant yield) in a spray of folicist with concentration 1.5 ml. litre<sup>-1</sup> &nbsp;(323.7 cm ‚ 88.33 leaf ‚31.67 gm) of vegetative growth characteristics sequentially and (23.50 cm ‚113.85 gm‚43.03 fruit.plant<sup>-1</sup> and 4.900 kg .plant<sup>-1</sup>) of fruiting growth characteristics sequentially and treatment of biomin 221 with concentration1.25 ml.litre<sup>-1 </sup>in vegetative growth characteristics (309.3cm‚70.33 leaf‚25.92gm) sequentially and fruiting growth characteristic (21.03cm‚111.01gm‚40.78 fruit.plant<sup>-1</sup> and 4.523 kg.plant<sup>-1</sup>) sequentially</p> Hakeem Sh. Atallah Huda M. Salim Heba A. Hussein Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-08-27 2019-08-27 27 4 178 183 Mutual Funds and their Reflection on the Market Value Index of the Stocks (the study of the experience of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for the period 2000- 2017) <p>Mutual funds are one of the most widely recognized financial innovations in the world, By providing an opportunity for savers and small investors who do not have adequate financial resources or have insufficient experience or time to enter the security markets. The study began with a major problem: "How will mutual funds be reflected on the Saudi Stock Market Index?" Which included a range of intellectual and practical sub-questions because of the growing need for mutual funds that allow savers and investors to operate their funds in funds. To deal with securities within the financial market. The data of the private investment funds in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for the period 2000-2017 were analyzed in terms of relationship and impact on the market value index using the statistical program (SPSS.v25) and (Excel), The study reached a number of conclusions, the most important of which is the existence of a correlation relationship between the very strong and medium between the mutual funds and the market value index, as well as the existence of a relationship of significant statistical significance between them.</p> Kamal Kadhum Jawad Al – Shimmari Jihad Faisal Jihad Al – Jlehawi Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-08-28 2019-08-28 27 4 184 195 Effect of the Use of Black Seed Powder, Cinnamon, Yeast and their Mixtures on the Productive Performance of the Ross Broiler Chicken <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This research investigated the effect of the use of black seed powder, cinnamon, yeast and their mixtures on the productive performance of the Rose meat breeds, where they distributed 240of one day old 40gm/chick body weight (Ross strain) randomly on 8 treatments , each treatment included two replicate (15chicks/replicate) and fed on&nbsp; standard diet with addition 0.05% yeast<em> Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> to second treatment , 0.4%cinnamon powder to third treatment, 0.4% black seed powder to fourth treatment 0.2% Cinnamon powder mixture with 0.025% yeast for the fifth treatment, 0.2% for each cinnamon black seed powder mixture, for the sixth treatment, 0.025% yeast mixture with 0.2%black seed powder for the seventh treatment, the triple mixture of 0.025% yeast and0.2% for each cinnamon black seed powder for the eighth treatment, and the first treatment was left on the ordinary diet without addition as control.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Weekly weights with weekly and total weight gain, weekly and the total feed consumption rate,&nbsp; weekly and the total dietary conversion efficiency were calculated.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The results showed significant differences in weekly weight rate weekly and total weights gain toward the treatments (T3, T4, T6, T7, T8) compared with the control treatment (T1) and were not significant with the second and fifth treatments (T2, T5) and the last two treatments were not related Significant differences with control treatment in these two characters, As well as the results showed no significant differences in feed consumption between the additional treatment and control factors, except for the third treatment containing 0.4% cinnamon powder. The cinnamon powder had significant differences compared to the control treatment in feed consumption rate and was not significant with the rest of the additive treatments. as well as the results showed that there was a significant decrease in the conversion efficiency of all additive treatments compared to control treatment (T1) and the best of the results toward the fourth treatment (adding black seed powder) was signed with the first treatment (control) and the second(yeast addition). and was not significant with the rest of the additive treatments.</p> Mohammed Mustafa Saleem Ibrahim Mustafa Hussein Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-08-29 2019-08-29 27 4 196 204 Physiological Studies on Growth and Reproduction of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Causing White Rot on Eggplants under Laboratories Conditions <p style="direction: ltr;">This study was aimed A series of laboratory experiments were carried out, including the study of the physiological characteristics of the <em>Sclerotinia sclerotiorum</em>, especially the effect of type of medium, temperature, acidity and saline concentrations on the growth of the pathogen and on its production capability on reproductive structures (sclerotia).</p> <p style="direction: ltr;">Results showed that the type of media had a significant effect (0.05) on growth average of <em>S. sclerotiorum</em> and on its ability to produce sclerotia. The growth of the fungus was significantly higher in <em>Moringa oleifera</em> leaves medium (Mo), but substantially decreased in <em>Petroselinum crispum </em>(Pc) compared to that in PDA. In contrast, the formation of sclerotia substantially decreased in Pc medium (4 sclerotia/ plate) followed by Mo (7 sclerotia/ plate) compared with PDA (25 plate / plate). The highest rate of growth of <em>S. sclerotoirum</em> was at 20 <sup>o</sup>C on the seventh day after inoculation, followed by growth at 25 <sup>o</sup>C&nbsp; and at 15 <sup>o</sup>C followed by 30 <sup>o</sup>C and the lowest growth was at 35 <sup>o</sup>C. It was found that the optimum pH for growth of <em>S. sclerotiorum</em> was at 5.5, but when pH increased to 4.5 the production of sclerotia was minimized to 44%. Also, the increasing of alkalinity to 8% resulted in a decrease of fungal growth to about 84% compared to the growth at &nbsp;pH = 5.5.</p> <p style="direction: ltr;">Salt concentrations (4%, 6%, and 8%) were revealed inhibitory effect on sclerotia production by <em>S. sclerotiorum</em>, but this effect negatively correlated with increasing concentration of NaCl. The results also showed a reduction in their production and deformity in their shaps at 4% concentration. After this concentration, fungus failed to produce the sclerotia. It can be concluded that this study highlighted the epidemiological components of the disease, which lie mainly in the application of the disease management strategy.</p> <p style="direction: ltr;"><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Ameer Hatem Hadi Radhi Jawad Kadhum Al – Janabi Ahmed Kadhum Abd – Al hadi Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-09-01 2019-09-01 27 4 205 222 Study the Optical and Structural Properties for Thin Film Zinc Oxide (ZNO) Produced by Pulsed Laser Deposition <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Zinc oxide (ZnO) was prepared by pulsed laser deposition(PLD) using Q-Switching Nd: YAG laser with &nbsp;=Nd:YAG laser ( a=1064 nm , f=6heposotion NE (ZnPc) THIN FILMS PREPARED BY PULSED LASER DEPOSITION&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>1064 nm, Repetition rate (f )= 6 Hz , and Energy (E) = 500 mJ at room temperature under vacuum condition with torr. The optical properties included the absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient, index of refractive for the films of ZnO was evaluated and the results are discussed. The energy band gap of thin-film ZnO 3 (eV) at room temperature. The optical transition was found to be direct and allowed transition. Moreover, UV–visible spectra were used to evaluate the ZnO energy gap. FTIR spectra for ZnO used to the presence of&nbsp; Zn-O bonding.</p> Mohammed T. Hussein Mohammed Jawad H. Kadhim Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-09-05 2019-09-05 27 4 223 229 Bounds on Real and Imaginary Parts of Non-Real Eigenvalues of a Non-Definite Sturm-Liouville Differential Equation with Cauchy Boundary Conditions <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; We are concerned in the paper with spectral properties of indefinite Sturm – Liouville type problems with Cauchy boundary conditions where differential equations coefficients are real valued integrable functions, and the spectral parameter is also purely complex number. And also we get bounds on the real and imaginary parts of indefinite Sturm- Liouville problem with cauchy conditions.</p> Karwan H. F Jwamer Khelan H. Qadr Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-09-08 2019-09-08 27 4 230 235 High Involvement Management Practices and their Impact on the Self-Efficacy of Human Resources Analytical Study of the Views of a Sample of Faculty Members in some Iraqi Universities and Colleges <p>The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which the management of high Involvement affects the dimensions of decision-making, information acquisition, revenue sharing, and knowledge ownership in the self-efficacy variable of human resources. The study was applied in a sample of Iraqi faculties (217) . The researchers reached a number of conclusions, the most important of which is that it is possible to benefit from the mechanisms and the dimensions of the management of high containment in the development of the self-efficacy of human resources. The main recommendations of the study were the need to give faculty members the necessary authority to perform their work properly,Teaching.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Zaytoun N. Dhahad Alaa Farhan Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-09-15 2019-09-15 27 4 236 247 A proposed Algorithm For Prediction HIV By Using Data Mining Technology <p>Data mining (DM) depends on analyzing wide amounts of information from many sources with a large database to obtain significant information that can be used in different areas, such as education and healthcare, in order to obtain the best possible knowledge. Within the field of healthcare, the huge quantity of medical science information has the potential to predict dangerous illnesses such as human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) within a short period of time if processed in a suitable way. Therefore, early handling can be set by using appropriate algorithms and methods, such as Association Rule Mining Algorithms, which will affect the diagnosis positively.</p> <p>The principles of the tree algorithm were based on the construction of our proposed algorithm, This paper proposes an algorithm that depends on a repeated pattern that can help doctors to distinguish the severity level of AIDS in patients by means of a database, in experimental analysis on a data set between the database of patients and the proposed algorithm.&nbsp; The&nbsp; proposed algorithm consistently takes less time to find the people with HIV as compared to the original database ,and a difference in the database memory storage has been found between the database of patients and the proposed algorithm.</p> <p>Traditional algorithms used in previous, such as PART, J48, and Naïve Bayes, have performed poorly to predict disease, and this problem has been solved by new technologies and the development of a predictive system for HIV status. Thus, the main goal of this research as the final results showed that the proposed algorithm is workable in an early prediction of HIV with less time and less memory storage compare it with the original database and reducing the database to a mini tree that can help predict the condition of the patient at an early stage.</p> Ihab L. Hussein Alsammak Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon 2019-09-22 2019-09-22 27 4 248 257