JOURNAL OF UNIVERSITY OF BABYLON for pure and applied sciences https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>OURNAL of <strong>U</strong>NIVERSITY of <strong>B</strong>ABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences, (<span style="color: #008000;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon for Pure and Applied Sciences in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong> is a scientific peer-reviewed open access journal monthly publishing high-quality research and review papers at the forefront of modern research describing significant developments in&nbsp;Pure and Applied Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Online ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="https://extranet.issn.org/resource/issn/2312-8135" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>2312-8135</strong></span></a></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Print ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="https://extranet.issn.org/resource/issn/1992-0652" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>1992-0652</strong></span></a></span></p> University of Babylon en-US JOURNAL OF UNIVERSITY OF BABYLON for pure and applied sciences 1992-0652 Cardiac Hydatidosis https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2050 <p>Cardiac hydatid disease is rare, occurring in about 2 % of the patients, the disease usually involves the myocardium and is associated with a wide spectrum of presentations, hence the patients may be asymptomatic or may present with a serious condition like severe valvular dysfunction, congestive heart failure, pulmonary embolism or conductive disturbances. Full histories, a proper examination of the chest, ECG, CXR, Echocardiography, cardiac catheterization, CT scan of the chest and immunoblot tests are essential diagnostic tools. Fifteen patients diagnosed preoperatively as having cardiac hydatid cysts were involved in this retrospective study. There was neither sex predilection nor any age limit for the disease. Any part of the heart could be involved, but the <strong><em>Left ventricle</em></strong> was the commonest site. Many patients included in the study were associated with extracardiac involvement especially the liver. Removal of the cyst(s) surgically stays the treatment of choice.</p> Walla Luay Al_Falluji Ammar Naif Wissam Al Obaidy ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 27 2 1 6 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2050 Homeostasis Events for Serum Ionized Calcium Accompanied by Anti- Mullerian Hormone in Some Women with Primary Infertility in Babylon Province https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2052 <p>Ionized calcium has a biological activity, this study has been debated whether the status of calcium homeostasis in correlated with anti-Mullerian hormone level how does influence the reproductive ability in some pre-menopausal women. The current study was conducted in the college of science for women during the period from February 2015 to May 2016, study population was involved eighty volunteer women (20-35) years enrolled in this study, fifty women with primary infertility considered as a study group, while the other 30 volunteers parous women considered as a control group. ELISA kit was used to assay the serum level of anti-Mullerian and parathyroid hormone, whereas colorimetric technique was applied to evaluate the total calcium, albumin, and inorganic phosphorus serum level, while ionized calcium is achieved by special equation depending on the total calcium and albumin level. Independent T-test analysis was applied to specify any significant variation for investigated parameters between control and study group, linear regression analyses were used to explore the association between ionized calcium and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level in both control and infertile groups. The results revealed that infertile group have significantly (p&lt;0.001) lower mean serum ionized calcium level(4.31±0.61mg/dl)than the control group(5.57±0.45mg/dl) accompanied by significantly (p&lt;0.001) increase in parathyroid hormone level (49.2±32.2 ng/dl) in a study group in comparison with a control group whose reported (92.1±22.2ng/dl) mean concentration ,infertile women revealed significantly decrease mean level in anti-Mullerian hormone (2.59±1.38ng/d) &nbsp;compared with &nbsp;the control group (3.44±1.00ng/dl), linear regression analyses revealed a significant positive relation between's ionized calcium concentration and AMH level (r=0.58, p=0.000, n=40) in the control group, as well, there was a significant strong positive connection was seen between serum ionized calcium and AMH level for the infertile group (r=0.70, p=0.000, n=50),our conclusion suggested that any physiological process including reproductive ability may need in one way or another to balance in the availability of ionized calcium.</p> Noran Jameel Ibraheem Manar Muhammad Hasan Al-Murshidi Walaa Saleh Hasan ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 27 2 7 16 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2052 Study the Relation of Cloud Cover with Evaporation and Solar Radiation over Baghdad City https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2053 <p style="text-align: justify;">Cloud cover effects on most other meteorological variables. It effects on the amount of radiation entering the boundary layer of the atmosphere and thus it controls the amount of energy within this range. Evaporation is also an important factor in the formation of clouds and directly affects the energy equation. This study was based on daily data of cloud cover and evaporation values taken from Iraqi meteorological organization and seismology for the period 2000 to 2005 for the city of Baghdad, as well as the solar radiation data of the three components (direct - diffuse - reflected) and the same location and period time period taken from European center of solar energy services for professionals study (soda), monthly and annual rates were calculated to show the correlation between these variables.&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">To carry out statistical operations and convert the values of the cloud cover to the proportions of eight parts to indicate the proportion of clouds in the sky and drawing diagrams, the results showed that there is a significant effect of the evaporation processes on the formation of the cloud cover. High evaporation values are associated with high values of the cloud cover and have a high positive correlation coefficient value hits (0.74). The results showed that the cloud cover values are inversely proportional to the direct and diffused radiation compounds and have a negative correlation coefficient of&nbsp; (-0.93). This effect is less on the reflected radiation component. In general, the cloud cover can be used to estimate the values of some other meteorological variables, especially in winter seasons.</p> Nagham Thari Ibraheem ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 27 2 17 27 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2053 Preparation and Characterization of poly-aniline hydrochloride (PANI-HCL) Nano-composites by Radiation https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2054 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; During this search, the polymer poly-aniline hydrochloride (PANI-HCL)&nbsp; was prepared with different weights before and after irradiation in the form of films using the casting method. The films were recorded with the cobalt element(CO<sup>60</sup>), which sends a gama (1.2) Mev for a period of (72) hours. The structural properties of the (FT-IR) were studied. The results showed that the active groups of the recorded polymer were consistent with the chemical composition and topographic study of the prepared film surfaces. The images showed that the recorded polymer is homogeneous and its color changes after irradiation.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The electrical properties included the measurement of the hall effect and the continuous electrical conductivity and the behavior of the current and voltages where the results showed that the Hall coefficient of the polymer mixture recorded before and after the irradiation are carriers of the (n-type) and through the measurement of current- voltages show results that the polymer recorded conduct the behavior of ohmic before irradiation and walk Conduction of a semiconductor after irradiation. In addition, the results of electrical conductivity were shown to be less after irradiation.</p> Moamar H. Idan Raheem G. Kadhim ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 27 2 27 37 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2054 Effect of Adding Different Concentrations of Alcohol Extracted Ginger as Feed Supplementation on Some Productive Traits of Broiler Chicken Ross Strain https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2055 <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study was conducted in the poultry field that belongs to Animal Production Techniques Department / Al musiab Technical College. To investigate the effect of alcohol extracted ginger supplementation in the diet on some productive traits of broiler chicken ross strain. Two hundred fifty unsexed broiler chicks were equally divided into the five groups, 50 chicks per group, 2 replicates per group (25 chicks per replicate). Chicks were fed on starter diet (1 day- 3 week) and final diet (4-6 week), diets supplemented with five ratios from alcohol extracted ginger (0, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/kg), the first group was control but the other represented experimental groups.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Results showed a significantly improve (P≤0.05) of average live body weight, weight gain, feed conversion ratio and dressing percentage in birds supplemented with alcohol extracted ginger as compared with control group at three and six weeks of birds age. As supplementation of alcohol extracted ginger had significantly (P≤0.05) decreased feed consumption and mortality ratio in experimental groups as compared with the control group.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; It can be concluded that supplementation of alcohol extracted ginger to the diet had a positive effect to enhance productive traits of broiler chicken ross strain.</p> Mohammed Jard Kadhim Muhammed Rasheed Rmul ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 27 2 38 43 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2055 The Effect of Marketing Deceptive Practices on the Organizational Mental Image from Customer Viewpoint (Analytical Study of the Insurance Industry) https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2056 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aimed to address the concept of deceptive marketing in the most important activity of companies, i.e., marketing, which is the lifeline on which companies depend on the process of financing and product selling. Additionally, through marketing, companies can communicate directly with customers, and this activity includes marketing practices that are deceptive or misleading. The study dealt with the presentation of the components of the marketing mix, and how each component can include deceptive or misleading practices. Marketers practice customer manipulation with the intention of changing customers' behavior and attitudes towards achieving the greatest possible profit in lesser time. With the spread of marketing deception and marketing fraud in various areas, the phenomenon is growing not only in product marketing but also in service marketing, especially insurance services, as many marketers and sales representatives believe that success and profit-making are associated with those practices. The study addressed many factors facilitating these practices, as well as the ways in which marketing deception is practiced and the impact of such practice on the perceptions that form in the minds of customers about companies. One of the most important objectives of the study was to substantiate the relationship between the dimensions of marketing deception and the dimensions of the mental image of the organization by relying on the statistical analysis of the initial data of the study, which was collected through questionnaire that was prepared for this purpose and distributed to a random sample of 225 customers of insurance companies operating in the insurance market in Iraq.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The most important findings of the study show that deceptive marketing practiced through the service marketing mix, among other dimensions, affects the mental image that the customers hold towards the organization in negative and varying ways. This study presents a number of recommendations, the foremost of which is the necessity of educating marketers and companies about the negativity of deceptive practices on the company in the long term, as well as paying attention to the mental image held by customers towards the insurance companies because of its impact on the formation of positive impressions towards the company, and thus increasing market share of the company through its reputation in the insurance&nbsp; market .</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Majed Abdul Amir Mohsen Ahmad Abdul Reda Enad ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 27 2 44 66 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2056 Capital Adequacy and its Impact on Banking Liquidity Risk Applied Study in the Bank of the Islamic National and Commercial Iraqi for the Period (2012-2017) https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2057 <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of this paper is to highlight one of the risks facing the banking system in general and the Iraqi in particular, both Islamic and commercial, resulting from the low liquidity of banks from their safe levels, which expose the bank to a number of effects, especially when exposed to sudden withdrawals through measuring and analyzing the banking liquidity risk of banking and the statement The most important means used to processing&nbsp; these risks, including the adequacy of capital according to the Basel II Accord. Two banks, the National Islamic Bank and the Commercial Bank of Iraq, were selected and the indicators of liquidity risk were used. Statement of the Effect of the Capital Adequacy Tool as a Tool that Contributes to the Absorption of Banking Risks and their Effects in Mitigating Liquidity Risk The indicators were analyzed and tested by testing F, P-value and impact statement through the R2 parameter using the ANOVA analysis. There is a significant effect of the capital adequacy ratio on the liquidity risk of banks and both banks to varying degrees on the basis of which the alternative hypothesis was accepted. The paper also reached the recommendations of the most important of which is the need to achieve a balance between the size of the balances utilized in the various banking fields and what is maintained, Exceed the capital adequacy ratios for the specified rates by the Central Bank of Iraq.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Qassem Ali Omran ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 27 2 67 79 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2057 Estimation of the Genetic Parameters of the Growth Characteristics in Rice Crop (Oryza sativa L.) by Effect of two Methods Irrigation https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2059 <p style="text-align: justify;">Field experiments were carried out for 2017 agricultural season in Babylon / Musaib - Albojasem region 35 km west&nbsp; north of the governorate to evaluate the performance of seven genotypes of rice (<em>Oryza sativa</em> L.) Genetic, environmental and phenotypic variances, heritability percent in the broad sense, genetic and phenotypic Different Coefficients, effect of irrigation methods (flooding and intermittent irrigation) of the genotypes (Amber33, Dijla, Mashkhab 2, Forat, Pernameg4, Yasmin and Ghadir) &nbsp;The research center of the rice in Al-Mashkhab using the experiment of split plots in randomized complete Block design (RCBD) with three replicates. The results can be summarized as follows:</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">1.The genotypes showed significant differences in the 5% probability level for all studied traits.</p> <ol style="text-align: justify;" start="2"> <li class="show">The genotype Amber 33 superior to all other traits except for the number of effective branches for genotype Forat.</li> <li class="show">The method of irrigation by flooding showed significant superiority of all studied traits.</li> <li class="show">The genetic variance values were higher than the environmental variability values of all traits except for the number of branches.</li> </ol> <p style="text-align: justify;">5.The estimates of heritability values in the broad sense indicated that they were high for all traits.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">6.The values of the phenotypic and genetic differences were different between low values of the number of days from planting to 50% flowering and medium for the other traits except for the area of the leaf it was high for the irrigation methods and the low of the number of branches. panicle.</p> Abdullah F. Serheed Haider B. Ahmed ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 27 2 80 94 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2059 The Electronic Management and its Role in Achieving Organizational Success – An Analytical Applied Research in the Directorate General for Industrial Development\ Iraq https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2066 <p style="text-align: justify;">The research has aimed to demonstrate the role played by electronic management in achieving organizational success. It represents a wide area for entering the business world in interaction and communication with modern trends. The current environment is very competitive. As the goal that all organizations seek to achieve, the research in the general directorate for industrial development followed one of the organizations that oversee the development of the private and mixed industrial sector in Iraq. The research based on a basic assumption that there was a significant relationship between electronic management and the possibility of organizational success. The descriptive approach adopted on the theoretical and analytical side of statistics in the applied side, which based on a questionnaire developed to suit the nature of the research and its objectives. It distributed to different administrative levels. After analyzing, the answers based on the appropriate statistical methods and specialized programs in statistical analysis, of the conclusions and recommendations that would develop, distinguish and transfer the quality of the administrative process to ensure organizational success.</p> Rusul Rowdan Asei Ayman Hadi Talib Ahmed Hadi Talib ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 95 114 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2066 The Effectiveness of the Quality of Performance Using the Cost Accounting Information System in the Control of Quality Costs Study in the General Company for Electrical Industries https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2069 <p style="text-align: justify;">The financial operations which carried out by economic unity are proven treatment and documenting and continuous down to makers decision by relevance objective and time and then to reflect on the decision maker in any center of responsibility. That ’s provided by the system accounting information where the source is the basis for producing important accounting information, And the cost accounting information systems of the most important information systems that deal with data processing and conversion to information of relative importance to the beneficiaries. Which is consist with The objective of the research that emphasize the importance of accounting systems in general and systems cost in particular to achieve the highest c The research has led to a number of results, the most important of which is the difficulty in controlling quality costs as well as the waste of economic resources in the company. The researchers recommended adherence to the technical standards to achieve the quality of performance as well as conducting a thorough examination of samples and focusing on the quality of raw materials and testing before use to reduce the proportion Damage.</p> Hanan Abdullah Hassan Al-Amar Qasim Ali Omran Al-Bayati Huda Jabbar Kadhum Al-Haiyali ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 115 132 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2069 Accounting Information Systems and their Impact on Achieving Competitive Advantage https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2072 <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;&nbsp; This research aims to highlight the important and effective role played by accounting information systems in banking and its impact on the possibility of achieving competitive advantage. The collection, classification, analysis, and submission of information to its users is one of the most important objectives that Iraqi banking departments seek to achieve under the acceleration of knowledge. By providing a robust database that is an effective tool for banks to achieve the principle of competitive advantage, these departments seek to develop their accounting information systems efficiently and effectively by employing their IT outputs in planning, The decision of the National Islamic Bank of Iraq, as well as the design of a questionnaire consisting of 20 paragraphs specialized in accounting information systems and 40 questionnaires, were distributed on the sample of the study. The role of accounting information systems in Iraqi banks and their impact on the achievement of competitive advantage. These indicators were analyzed and tested by means of the tests of F, P-value and impact statement through the R2 parameter using ANOVA. The research concluded that there is a significant effect on the systems. The accounting research to achieve a competitive advantage on the basis of which the alternative hypothesis was accepted. The research also reached a number of recommendations, the most important of which is that the departments of Iraqi banks are interested in investing and developing their accounting information systems and employing their information outputs in making the best administrative and investment decisions.</p> Anwar Hashim Abood ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 133 142 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2072 Fast Iris Localization Based on Image Algebra and Morphological Operations https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2073 <p style="text-align: justify;">The localization of the iris is the most significant factor in biometrics of the iris, which traditionally assumes strictly controlled environments. The proposed method includes the pupillary and limbic iris boundaries localization. A primary advantage of image arithmetic operations is that the process is straightforward and therefore fast, these characteristics are employed and combined with the morphological operators in the designing of the proposed algorithm. The proposed algorithm takes into account the noise area which is found in various parts of the eye image such as light reflections, focus, and small visible iris. The experimental results are conducted on a collection of iris images consist of 756 images belong to Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Automation (CASIA V-1) and 450 images belong to Multi Media University (MMU V-1) databases.&nbsp; The results indicate a high level of accuracy using the proposed technique. Moreover, the comparison results with the state-of-the-art iris localization algorithms expose considerable improvement in segmentation accuracy while being computationally more efficient.</p> Ashwaq T. Hashim Zina A. Saleh ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 143 154 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2073 Analyzing the Relationship between Ethical Marketing and Strategic Balance : An a Comparative Study in a Sample of Companies in the Industrial Sector in the Provinces of Babylon and Holly Karbala, https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2074 <p style="text-align: justify;">Objective: The objective of our present study is to analyze the relationship between ethical marketing and strategic balance in the sample companies represented by the private and public companies operating in the industrial sector in the provinces of Babylon and Holly Karbala.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methodology/ Design:</strong> The problem of the study was formulated through several questions regarding the relationship between the variables of the study and its nature by which the objectives of the study were identified and represented in hypothetical scheme which shaped the formulation of the hypotheses that were scaled in the advanced statistical program "partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM)" by analyzing data provided by the research tool (questionnaire) after applying it on the research community members who have been picked randomly: sections and branches managers from different administrative levels. (57) Questionnaires were distributed to public and private sector companies, (54) have been retrieved and (4) were excluded for being invalid so the final number is (50). For the analysis of data, the researcher used a set of statistical methods in the advanced statistical program (SmartPLS V.3) for data analysis because of the scarcity of research and studies using this advanced program and the accuracy of its results that can help in reaching objective and precise conclusions, as well as the use of (SPSS v22) to evaluate the scaling tools.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Theoretical results: </strong>there is an ambiguous perception concerning the nature of relationships among current study variables represented in the independent variable (Ethical Marketing) and subsidiary variable (Strategic Balance).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Practical results: </strong>the most important practical results reached by the researcher can be summarized in the presence of a relation of direct, positive and moral effect between ethical marketing and strategic balance of both sectors.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>The value and authenticity of the study:</strong> The value of the research lies in establishing the rules of knowledge and concepts of its variables through clarifying the relation of direct, positive and moral impact on these variables after applying them to the constituents of the study society and through a comparison that resulted in the superiority of private sector companies in their application of ethical marketing that achieves strategic balance and directing it towards the sector of a great impact on the Iraqi economy.</p> Adel Hadi Albaghdadi May Mohammed Dhafer ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 155 169 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2074 Calculation the Effect of Atomic Number for Projectile and Target on the Electronic Stopping Power https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2077 <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;In this research, a theoretical study was made to calculate electronic stopping power for heavy charged particles (Protons, Alpha particles, Heavy ions (C,O)) which interact with atomic targets (H,C,O,Si) by using the equation which resulting from distant and close collisions ,as it has been calculating the effect of&nbsp; atomic number (Z<sub>1</sub>) for projectiles and the effect of&nbsp; atomic number (Z<sub>2</sub>) for targets on the electronic stopping power in range velocities (v=v<sub>o</sub>,2v<sub>o</sub>,5v<sub>o</sub>,10v<sub>o</sub>).&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;Mathematical approximative methods are used in the calculation and some of the equation programmed by Matlab language to obtain the theoretical result which is shown in the graphic.</p> Roaa Salam Kadhum Al- Hasnawei ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 170 177 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2077 Analytical Study of the Phenomenon of Money Laundering and its Impact on the Iraqi Banking Sector https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2078 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study discusses the phenomenon of money laundering and its impact on the financial sector in general and the Iraqi banking sector. The research methodology describes money laundering in detail and the three basic stages of money laundering, placement, layering, and integration. How and where money laundering is a key reason to address this problem and what is the role of governments? It also deals with the impact of money laundering on the Iraqi economy, which is the theft of banks, the suspension of industrial projects, terrorism and corruption. The most important recommendations that limit this phenomenon is international cooperation and legal assistance in money laundering investigations. The use of programming and electronic systems to enter the information of owners of real estate and businesses to detect suspicious activities. To reduce this problem requires the establishment of specialized units in the Central Bank and the Ministry of Finance, Justice and the security services to apply all laws against money laundering. As for the Iraqi banking sector, it is necessary to verify the identity of the owners of the funds deposited in banks. Inform the competent authorities by the bank's management of any suspicious activity. In addition to confirming the documents proving the legality of the funds deposited.</p> Raad Abdulameer Oleiwi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 178 188 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2078 Assessment of Vitamin D Level in Sera of Primary School Students in Babylon Province https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2081 <p style="text-align: justify;">The spread of insufficiency of vitamin D may expose primary students at hazard for bone development, innate and adaptive immune responses, and increases risk of certain chronic diseases. The study provides an examination of the pervasiveness of 3 levels of sera 25(OH)D (≥30, 29-20, and &lt;20 ng/ml) in students at the age 6 to 13 years. The data highlights that several of children in the Babylon city have levels of 25(OH)D some consider low and that urban girls have a lower record 25(OH)D. The serum is used to estimate the circulating level of vit.D by using microplate technique.&nbsp; Serum level 25(OH)D for children age 6 to 13 years is 28.77 ± 11.51ng/ml. Girls have suboptimal levels of 25(OH)D (25.96±9.95 ng/ml (95% CI:10.39-2.74) in comparison with the boys&nbsp; (32.53±12.44 [95% CI:5.75-2.29). The prevalence of levels at &lt;10 ng/ml is 15%, less 20 ng/ml is 56%, and less 30 ng/ml is 29%. The predominance of sera '25(OH)D levels of &lt;30 ng/ml is higher among boys (43%) in comparison with the girls (32%); urban (45%) in comparison with rural (30%). Based on a delegate test of Babylon kids of primary students, many children have inadequate levels of 25(OH)D.</p> Najlaa Jawad Hasani ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 189 194 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2081 Effect of Soil Moisture and Tillage Depth on Some Mechanical Properties for Tillage Machines Type (Moldboard Plow) https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2084 <p style="text-align: justify;">The effect of soil moisture and tillage depth was studied based on some mechanical properties for type tillage machine (moldboard plow)&nbsp; and soil physical characteristics wene tested two soil moisture levels of 10-12%and 12-14% and three levels tillage depth of 14,16 and 18 cm. The experiments were conducted in a factorial experiment under a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed that the soil moisture 10-12 % was significantly better than the soil moisture 12-14% as while tillage depth at range 14cm was significantly superior to the other two levels 16 and 18 cm in all studied conditions. The results showed fuel consumption of 11.348 and 10.777 L.ha-1 , slippage percentage of 9.291 and 9.111 % power losses due to slippage of 2.689 and 2.414 kW, field efficiency of 68.358 and 68.967 %, drawbar power 12.226 and 12.001kw and specific resistance 9.045 and 8.553 N.<sup>cm-2 </sup>for soil moisture 10-12% and tillage depth 14 cm , respectively.</p> Aleawi A. Ghali ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 195 207 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2084 Quality of Service and its Impact in Achieving Competitive Advantage https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2087 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to determine the impact of the (QoS) variable on the competitive advantage variable. To achieve this, the study relied on the quality of service in terms of reliability, responsiveness, flexibility, safety and connectivity and its competitive advantage in terms of cost, quality, flexibility, and delivery. The study tried to answer the questions of the problem, the most important of which is the quality of service in the organization in question? What is the level of competitive advantage offered by the organization in question? Is there a relationship between quality of service and competitive advantage in the organization in question? The study was conducted in the General Company for the distribution of petroleum products / Central Euphrates Distribution Authority / Babel Branch. The questionnaire was used to obtain the necessary data, as well as personal interviews. The opinions of 150 workers were analyzed in addition to 35 customers. The simple correlation coefficient was used to measure the correlation between the variables and the (T) test to determine the significance of the simple and multiple regression equations and also to use the analysis of the (Anova). The simulation method was used to generate data (views) of all the resolution sections that were pre-designed according to the five-dimensional Likert scale for the sample size (n=150). The study sought to achieve a set of objectives, the most important of which is to identify the relationship between quality of service, competitive advantage and the impact of quality of service on the competitive advantage, to make some recommendations that can contribute to improving the status of the organization in question. The study concluded with a number of conclusions, the most important of which is the organization's interest in responding quickly to the customer's needs when requesting service, noting the importance of the organization to provide most of the needs of the citizens of fuel on demand despite the difficult conditions of the country. The most important recommendations included the organization's interest in quickly responding to customers' requests, so it is important for them to maintain and develop these gains.</p> Adnan Shamkhi Jabir Kamil Shkaier Al.watifi Abbas kh. Aljanabi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 208 227 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2087 Synthesis and Catalase Mimic Activity of MnO2 Nano Powder Prepared by Hydrothermal Process https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2090 <p>Manganese dioxide (MnO<sub>2</sub>) nanopowder has been synthesized by hydrothermal method. MnO<sub>2</sub> was annealed at different temperatures (250, 400, 550, 700˚C). The crystal structure and surface morphology of these nanostructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The catalase mimic activity (catalytic activity) of MnO<sub>2</sub> against hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) was studied by using the new method and found that 400˚C is the best annealing temperature.</p> Rashed T. Rasheed Sariya D. Al-Algawi Rosul M. N. ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 228 237 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2090 Association of the Arginase Ι with Bronchial Asthma https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2092 <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objective</strong> The aim of this study was to detect the arginase Ι (ARG I) enzyme in asthma patients, clarify its role, in addition to examining the relationship of this enzyme with bronchial asthma.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methods:</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Blood samples were collected from 100 patients from the Department of Medicine in Rizgary Hospital in Erbil City, in addition to intact 100 volunteers; the introduced questionnaire was filled out on the basis of type-induced asthma, duration of the disease, age of the patients, gender, family history, and allergy condition, Serum was separated to perform <strong>Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay</strong> (ELISA) in Medical Research Center to examine the association of ARGΙ with bronchial asthma. By ARG activity we can measure the conversion of arginine to ornithine and urea. By using a quantitative colorimetric assay at 490 nm, employing a QuantiChrom arginase assay kit (Bioassay Systems).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Results: </strong>Our results depicted the association between ARGΙ and bronchial asthma: based on their age, significant elevation of serum arginase level was observed in the patients with ≥81 years old, which mean value (100.16±19.77<sup>c</sup>), p-value (0.000); also the duration of asthma ≥20 years (82.48±38.81<sup>c</sup>) , p-value (0.01) were remarkably affected; this sign was found in those with types of induced asthma and with allergy condition. &nbsp;But the non- significant difference in the frequency of abnormal serum arginase level was observed in those patients that have a family history of asthma disease and gender of the patients. This finding demonstrated a remarkable association of ARG Ι in the development of asthma at <em>p ˂ 0.05.</em></p> Ashti Mohammad Amin Said Ahmed Abdulqader Al-Naqshbandi Yasin Kareem Amin Rebwar Jalal Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 238 243 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2092 Effect of Ensiling and Urea Treatment on Nutritive Value of Wild Reed (Phragmites Communis) in Awassi Lambs Feeding 3- Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2119 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study was conducted in animal farm belonging to Animal Production Department- College of Agriculture - AlQasim Green University using 24 Awassi male lambs at 4-6 months of age and mean initial weight of 20.59 kg, to investigate the effect of ensiling and level of urea (0, 1 and 2%) on ruminal fermentation characteristics. Results pointed out that pH was increased (P&lt;0.01) due to ensiling, values were 6.91 vs. 6.71 for silage and reed respectively, yet it was not affected by level of urea. Higher (P&lt;0.01) value of ruminal NH<sub>3</sub>-N was detected in samples withdrawn from lambs fed read treated with a high level of urea as compared with untreated reed silage (10.21 vs. 11.05 mg/100 ml for silage and reed respectively). Total volatile fattty Acid (TVFA) in the rumen was not affected by ensiling (5.67 vs. 5.65 mmol/100 ml) and level of urea treatment. Untreated silage and reed treated with 2% of urea recorded higher pH and NH<sub>3</sub>-N concentrations respectively. Higher pH and TVFA were recorded in samples withdrawn before feeding to be decreased at 3 hours post feeding.Then it was decreased after 6 hrs. NH<sub>3</sub>-N oncentrations while recorded higer level in samples withdrawn 3 hours post feeding, then it decreased at 6 hours post feeding, however, it was still higher than those recorded before feeding.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Haitham M. Hussian Ali A. Saeed ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 244 251 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2119 Reduction for Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations by Using Lie Group https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2128 <p style="text-align: justify;">In this publication, We have done Lie group theory is applied to reduce the order of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with 1-parameter &nbsp;and reduce a PDEs to ODEs . Also, set up algorithm to solve ODEs and PDEs to obtain the exact solution.</p> Eman Ali Hussain Zainab Mohammed Alwan ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 252 260 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2128 Some Properties of a Class of Harmonic Multivalent Functions Defined by an Integral Operator https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2129 <p>Some properties of a class of harmonic multivalent functions defined by an integral operator are introduced, like, coefficient estimates, distortion property, extreme points, inclusion results and&nbsp; closure under an integral operator for this class are obtained.</p> Aqeel Ketab AL-khafaji Waggas Galib Atshan Salwa Salman Abed ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 261 268 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2129 Effect of Foliar Application of Seaweed Extract and Zincon Productivity of Dahlia hybrida cv. Albion https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2180 <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; An experiment for the&nbsp; agricultural season 2017&nbsp; was carried out in pots in the Autumn season to study the effect of application three levels of Sea Top&nbsp; foliar&nbsp; fertilizer (0, 50,and 100 gm.L<sup>-1</sup>) and Three levels of zinc (zinc sulfate) was ( 0, 30, and60 mg. L<sup>-1</sup>) with three times spraying&nbsp; intervals every20 days&nbsp; for&nbsp; some of&nbsp; the growth and yield parameters&nbsp; of the Dahlia cv. Albion. The spray concentration of zinc sulfate at level of 60 mg / L<sup>-1</sup> and Seaweed at a level of 100 mg / L <sup>-1</sup> had significant differences in plant height,&nbsp; number of branches ,number of flowers per plant, flower diameter, fresh weight of flower,fresh weight of the tuber , number of tubers per plant, fresh weight&nbsp; of the stalk,and dry weight of the vegetative parts ,compared with the control treatment. The increase was 115.16, 6.33, 12.0, 15.53, 25.66, 371.36, 6.66, 46.56, and 60.16&nbsp; for the above qualities respectively.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">We conclude, that the application of Seaweed Extract and Zinc improved the yield contributing factors that resulted in a significant increase in Productivity of <em>Dahlia hybrida</em>yield.</p> Hassan Hadi Alkarawi Sabaa Jawad Abd Alkadim ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 269 276 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2180 Effect of Rootstock, Soil and Foliar Nutrition in Some Vegetative Characteristics Growth of Local Lemon Seedlings Citrus Limon L. https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2181 <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>&nbsp;An experiment was conducted in the wooden canopy affiliated to the Technical College AL-Musaib during the period from the beginning of March until the end of December, 2017 on local lemon citron seedlings aged seven months and grafted on the two seed roots Sour orange and Sweet lemon to study the effect spray and soil fertilizers feeding of organic TARASOIL CALCIO with concentration(0, 50, 100)ml.L<sup>-1</sup>and sprays of DECSON with concentration of (0, 10, 20) ml. L<sup>-1</sup>to study the characteristics of vegetative, The soil fertilization in 11/4/2017, 11/5/2017, 11/9/2017 and&nbsp; 11/10/2017, foliar spray in 74//2017, 7/5/2017, 7/9/2017 and 7/10/2017, the experiment was applied by Completely Randomized Design(C.R.D)as factorial experiment(2×3×3) with three replicates and three seedling&nbsp; and 162 seedlings as a total group, The results were analyzed using the statistical analysis program(Excel). The averages were compared according to the least significant difference(L.S.D)at a probability level of (0.05), The type of rootstock have a significant effect on vegetative, The rootstock of sweet lemon increased plant height, leaves the number, leaf area, while rootstock sour orange increased in the stem, Scion. Stalk of sweet lemon +100ml.L<sup>-1</sup>TARASOIL CALCIO had a suppressive&nbsp; effect in plant height,&nbsp; leaves number while rootstock sour orange suppressive in stock stem, Scion, leaf area<strong>,</strong> Stalk of sweet lemon +20 ml.L<sup>-1</sup> DECSON had a suppressive effect in plant height, leaf number, leaf area while Sour crease stalk a suppressive in&nbsp; main stem, Scion. sweet lemon stalk+100ml.L<sup>-1</sup>TARASOIL CALCIO+20 ml.L<sup>-1</sup> DECSON had a suppressed in plant height, Scion, leaf number, leaf area, while stalk the orange had a suppressive effect in a stock stem<strong>.</strong></p> Sahar Hussein Tkhyel Raad Taha Mohammed Ali Balaket ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 277 285 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2181 The Green Tax and its Role in Financing the General Budget in Iraq https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2203 <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Iraq suffers Like the rest of the world Different degrees of progress economy Of the dangerous effects of public budget and that the imposition of fees and fines for polluters is inadequate, in addition to carrying the budget to implement the law of protection and improvement of the environment in Iraq No. (27) for the year 2009 through the Ministry of Environment and Health. Therefore, the research aims to determine its goal by studying the tax indicators that help to know the possibility of introducing a new tax, the green tax to protect the environment from pollution in addition to increasing the tax revenues to address the problem of the general budget deficit. The research reached the possibility of imposing a new tax, Provide for the possibility of tax accounting.</p> Aroba Maeen Ayesh Fatima Feza Hadab Mohsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 286 294 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2203 Excess Molar Volume Calculation and Viscosity Deviation and Excess Gibbs Energy for Binary Solution of 1- Propanol with Butyl Acetate at Temperatures (40,50,60) 0C https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2204 <p style="text-align: justify;">In this research, the solubility Process of the binary liquid solution(1-Propanol and butyl acetate) were studied at temperature(40,50.60)<sup>0</sup>C. Densities ρ by pycnometer method and viscosity ƞ by OSTWALD tube that calibrated with distilled water was measured. Then excess molar volume was calculated of pure component and its mixtures that was prepared over the entire mole fraction range. It has been observed that excess molar volumes values were negative at all temperatures. After that, the deviation in viscosity ∆ ƞ&nbsp; and Excess Gibbs free energy ∆G<sup>E</sup> was determined and it has been observed that it takes negative values at all temperatures. Excess molar volume, deviation in viscosity, excess Gibbs free energy were correlated with Redlich-Kister equation Type polynomial and the showed an accepted standard deviation between the experimental and calculated values it has been shown the effect of Hydrogen bonds formation and the spherical shape for the molecules and its size on the excess thermodynamic properties.</p> Zaher Al haddad Mahmoud Amer ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 295 305 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2204 Some Biological Aspects of Al - Shabbot Arabibarbus grypus (Heckel, 1843) in Al-Diwanyia River, Middle of Iraq https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2223 <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Some biological characteristics of shabbot, <em>Arabibarbus grypus</em> (Heckel, 1843) in the Al-Diwaniya River, middle of Iraq were studied from October 2016 to September 2017. Water temperature ranged from 10.2<sup>o</sup>C in March to 32.8<sup>o</sup>C in August. A total of 853 fish were caught by seine, gill and cast nets and electro-fishing. <em>A. grypus</em> constituted about 6.27% of the total fish catch. The length-weight relationship was W=0.021*L<sup>2.7548</sup> revealing an allometric growth. The mean relative condition factor was 0.91. Five age groups wore recorded and their mean total lengths were 20.2, 32.0, 39.0, 43.9 and 48.4 cm, respectively. The growth model of the species was&nbsp; L<sub>t</sub>= 58 [1-e <sup>-0.39 (t-0.313)</sup>]<strong>. </strong>The growth performance index (Φ) of <em>A. grypus </em>was computed as 3.11. The study declares that the species is a omnivore, feeding mainly on aquatic plants, insects, algae and detritus. The overall sex ratio (female: male) was 1.47:1. The highest values of gonado- somatic index (GSI) were 4.20 for female and 1.78 for males in April. The fecundity of the species ranged from 75600 to 124200 eggs.&nbsp;</p> Mohanad O. Abdullah Al-Jubouri Abdul-Razak M. Mohamed ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 306 316 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2223 The Importance of Hedging Financial Engineering Products in Reducing the Risk of Trading Securities https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2226 <p style="text-align: justify;">Financial engineering refers to the generation of new instruments or securities to meet the need of investors or refinancing providers for financing instruments, the research aims to highlight the importance of financial products in activating and developing, the stock market as a source of financing for the economy. Where the multiplicity and diversity of financial products traded in the stock market is a cornerstone of its efficiency and development, the diversification of financial products can be used as a hedge against the risk of trading securities. The research was to highlight these risks and how to reduce them, through financial engineering productsmany conclusions and recommendations have been reached.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Zainab Jabbar Yousif Khawla Shihab Najim ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 317 328 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2226 Fixed Point Theorems and Iterative Function System in G-Metric Spaces https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2228 <p>&nbsp; In this paper, we introduce the Hutchinson Barnsley operator (shortly, operator) on a &nbsp;metric space and employ its theory to construct a fractal set as its unique fixed point by using Ciric type generalized -contraction in complete metric space. Some concepts are illustrated by numerical examples.</p> Salwa Salman Abed Anaam Neamah Faraj ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 329 340 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2228 Balanced Scorecard and its Role in Evaluating the Performance of Organizations (Case Study in the Directorate General for the Production of Electric Power/ Middle Euphrates) https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2247 <p style="text-align: justify;">The balanced scorecard is considered a modern form of evaluating the Performance of economic units; as it depends on the integrated measure of financial performance presenting a description for past events results, besides, depending on un financial measures representing as indicators of future performance.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Accordingly, balanced scorecard allows economic units evaluating their performance with four perspectives, the financial, Customer, internal operation, and education are growth perspective.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;</p> Naseem Khudhair Abbas ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 341 357 10.29196/jubpas.v27i2.2247 Inter-Relationship between Global Competitiveness and Human Development- Analytical Study of Selected Countries https://journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBPAS/article/view/2266 <p style="text-align: justify;">The research aims to study the inter-relationship between global competitiveness indicators and human development indicators for selected countries (low, middle, and high income)by using Granger Test, and VAR Test. The results of the causality test showed that there is a causality relation between international competitiveness and human development.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">We found global competitiveness indicators has a clear effect on human development indicators in the low, middle, and high-income countries.</p> Mufeed Thinun Younis Dina Ahmed Omer ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/index/Licence 2019-04-01 2019-04-01 27 2 358 366