JOURNAL OF UNIVERSITY OF BABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>OURNAL of <strong>U</strong>NIVERSITY of <strong>B</strong>ABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences, (<span style="color: #008000;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon for Pure and Applied Sciences in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong> is a scientific peer-reviewed open access journal publishing high-quality research and review papers at the forefront of modern research describing significant developments in Pure and Applied Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Online ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>2312-8135</strong></span></a></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Print ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>1992-0652</strong></span></a></span></p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Ali AL Marzoqi) (information) Tue, 19 Jul 2022 07:29:24 +0000 OJS 60 Assessment of Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill Side Effects among Women Attending Maternal Child Health Centers in Erbil <p>Purpose: Studies exploring the adverse effects of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use among women living in Erbil/Iraq are lacking. This study aimed to assess the patterns of use and associated side effects among women in Erbil.</p> <p>Patients and methods: A face-to-face questionnaire survey inquiring about demographic information and issues related to the use of OCPs and related side effects was completed by 235 women who had used OCPs at least once in their lifetime.</p> <p>Results: The women exhibited positive attitudes towards OCP efficacy and safety, positively associated with their patterns of use. The following common side effects of OCPs were reported: pain (69.4%), vision problems (60%), headache and fatigue (59%), speech impairment (53%), irregular bleeding and breast tenderness (52%), nausea (51%), chest pains (40%), chloasma (37%), weight gain (33 %), abdominal pain (28%), shortness of breath (26%), swelling (20 %), spotting (12%), and allergy (7%).</p> <p>Conclusion: The study revealed that women who have many side effects toward OCPs nevertheless tend to use them appropriately. However, educational programs are advisable to improve knowledge about OCP use among women in Erbil.</p> Jawdat Mamand Alhagbaker, Nazar Ali Shreen, Awaz Aziz Saeed, Madiha Abbas Muhammad Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Environmental Study of Effect of Some Plants Extracts on Culex pipiens mosquitoes <p><u>Background </u><u>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</u></p> <p>In the nature there are many plants that play important roles to control mosquitoes, but some of these plants can increased their effect after mixed with another plant. For that, this study aimed to know the effect of mixture of two types of different plants on <em>Culex pipiens </em>mosquitoes in the larva stages and the process of hatching the eggs.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><u>Materials and methods </u></p> <p>&nbsp;In this research the effect of parsley water extract (<em>Petroselinum crispum</em>) and mosses water extract (<em>Funaria sp.</em>) have been taken as mixture in ratio (1:1) to know their effect on <em>Culex pipiens </em>mosquitoes after using different concentrations (4.5, 3.5, 2.5, 1.5, 0.5) mg/l from it.</p> <p><u>Results </u></p> <p>The results show that percentage of mortalities for <em>C. pipiens </em>larva mosquitoes were (89, 72, 55, 42, 39)%, (89, 62, 56, 36, 38)%, (75, 67, 54, 46, 26)% and (77, 65, 63, 56, 40)% with LC<sub>50 </sub>(1.8, 2, 2.3, 1.3) mg/l for first, second, third and fourth stage respectively. While the percentage of hatching eggs that exposed to mixture extracts were (31, 43, 65, 71, 83)% with LC<sub>50 </sub>(3.2) mg/l. Results haven’t shown a significant differentiation among percentage of larva mortalities stages, but they have shown among percentage of hatching eggs in level of probability (0.05), also concentrations have a positive correlation coefficient with percentage of larva mortalities stages and negative with percentage of hatching eggs.&nbsp;</p> <p><u>Conclusion</u></p> <p>The water extract mixture from water extract of parsley and mosses can be killed larva stages in low concentration and the mortality increases with increased concentration of extract, and can prevented eggs hatching.</p> May Hameed Mohammad AL-Dehamee Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Surface and Subsurface Properties of Aquatic Ecosystems <p>The surface microlayer (SML) is the dividing border&nbsp; between the air and water surface. It has physical, chemical and biological properties which are distinctly from subsurface layer (SSL) waters. As its unique place between the air- water, the SML has remained in a distinct research corner. Surface microlayer is characterized by the capacity to accumulate of organic chemical compounds specially proteins, carbohydrates and lipid. The presence of such as energy-rich organic matters in the surface microlayer creates distinct condition for the accumulation and development of aerobic bacteria mainly heterotrophic bacteria forming bacterio-neuston</p> Hala Faez Abdul Hadi Al-Jawahery Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 (bi)*-Neutrosophic Soft Limit Points in Neutrosophic Soft Bitopological Space <p>The major goal of the current research is to present the conception of “(bi)*-neutrosophic soft limit points” in “neutrosophic soft Bitopological” spaces. In addition, the research aims to give the essential theorems related to the topic with illustrative examples</p> Hayder Hussein Jaddoa Al-Mamoori Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Non-Blind Image Watermarking Method for Copyright Protection <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In this paper, a non-blind watermarking method for protecting the copyright of digital color images is introduced. This method based on the combination of digital transforms (DWT, DCT) in the frequency domain. The embedding process in this method depends on the partition of the host image into 16×16 non-overlapped blocks and the use of edge entropy metric to choose the appropriate blocks for the insertion process for the purpose of increasing the imperceptibility of the proposed system. As for the extraction process, it is carried out in a way that requires the presence of the original image but rather follows the same embedding protocol to extract the embedded encrypted watermark. To raise the security level, a hybrid encryption method using the chaotic map and DNA coding has been applied for encrypting the watermark before embedding it. Experimental results demonstrate that the differences between the watermarked image and the original image are indistinguishable. The proposed method is effectively resisted common image processing attacks.</p> Sheimaa A. Hadi, Suhad A Ali, Majid Jabbar Jawad Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Spline Fractional Polynomial for Computing Fractional Differential Equations <p>We propose a fractional spline method for solving fractional differential equations subject to initial conditions. Using the Caputo fractional integral and derivative have to construct the spline interpolation with polynomial coefficients. For the given spline function, error bounds were studied and a stability analysis was completed. The numerical explanation for the provided method was considered using three examples. The results show that the fractional spline function which interpolates data is productive and profitable in solving unique problems.&nbsp;</p> Faraidun K. Hamasalh, Seaman S. Hamasalh Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Existence and Uniqueness Solution of Fractional Order Regge Problem <p>In this paper, we look into a group of fractional boundary value problem equations involving fractional derivative fractional orders &nbsp;and &nbsp;there are two boundary value criteria in this equation. The existence and uniqueness solutions are obtained using the Banach fixed point theorem (Contraction mapping theorem) and the Schauder fixed point theorem. based on the method of fractional integral and integral operator, our primary findings are illustrated using examples.</p> Hozan Hilmi, Karwan H.F Jwamer Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Characteristics of Eigenfunctions and Eigenvalues of a Fourth Order Differential Equations with Spectral Parameter in the Boundary Conditions <p>The characteristics of eigenvalues, and their positions on the real axis are discussed in this article for a fourth order eigenvalue problem with a spectral parameter in the boundary conditions. We have demonstrated that our described problem has a unique solution, as well as, it is shown the characteristics of eigenfunctions and their derivatives in the space</p> Aryan Ali Mohammed , Rebaz Fadhil Mahmood Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Hordeum distichon L. (Gramineae) in Iraq. As a Review <p>Background:</p> <p><em>Hordeum distichon </em>L. is the most important cereal crop grown in Iraq and is commonly cultivated in temperate climate across the world that is often known as common barley or two-rowed barley is a cultigen of barley belonging to the Poaceae family and the Triticeae tribe.</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>The present review summarized collected information that is spread in different scientific articles about <em>Hordeum distichon's</em> morphology, ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. It was also gathered scientific evidence supporting ethnobotanical claims and identified holes that must be filled by future study</p> <p>Conclusion:</p> <p>These data will be helpful to provide future directions for the agricultural and medicinal use of <em>Hordeum</em> <em>distichon</em> plant which no need to remain the most extensively used herbal plant, according to traditional applications and scientific examination.</p> Taiba Falih Al-Mayyahi, Arkan Ali Al-Tai, Huda Jasim M. Altameme Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Equilibrium (Fixed) Vector of a Markov and Absorbing Markov Chains <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Owing to evolve the technological and scientific requirements, reliability plays an essential part in mathematical and Statistical disciplines. The method of independent trials has been the focus of most contemporary probability assessments. These operations are the cornerstone of classical probability and a large part of statistics. The “Law of Large Numbers” and the “Central Limit Theorem” were two of the primary theorems for such processes that were studied. We demonstrated that the general outcome occurs when a series of chance tests create an independent testing procedure.</p> Hayder Kareem Hammood Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Approximation in Semi-compact and Pre-concave Sets in Metric Spaces <p>It is known that an approximation in non-compact sets is not guaranteed always same is true for concave sets which do not guarantee get the uniqness of a best approximation element. In this papers we introduce a new method to approximation in a semi-compact and pre-concave set in the metric spaces. This new method accomplished by prove some theorems which used properties of above set that guarantees existences and uniqueness of best approximation element for any element in this set, where these properties that is semi-compactness and pre-concavity alone are considered to be weak topological (metric) properties. Moreover, the other important conclusion is that the semi -compact and pre-concave set in metric space must be become a convex set, more than it must be a strictly convex set and the importance of this conclusion is clear that the convexity of sets is considered a strong properties of sets, also there are others conclusions in the folds of this research. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Jawad Khadim Judy Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Subsurface Structures Delineation to Evaluate the Possibility of Groundwater Gathering Using Gravity Data Interpretation in Salman Basin, Iraqi Southern Desert <p>Background:</p> <p>The study area is located in the Southern Part (SD) of Iraq, between the Southwestern part of Al-Samawah city and northeastern part of Dhi-Qar Governorate. The lack of surface water for different usages requirements has led to search for new groundwater resources.&nbsp; The study area is characterized by an arid to semi-arid climate with little rains and increase evaporation.</p> <p>Materials and Methods:</p> <p>Gravity methods and using GIS environment were used to delineate the subsurface structural lineaments in Salman Basin (SB) within Al-Muthanna province in Iraqi southern desert (SD). The Centre for Exploration Targeting (CET) was applied to gravity data; we were used CET technique to find any fractures, contact or faults that may occur within the study area. The data processing was carried out by using the OASIS montaj <sup>TM</sup>. Data is extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with a spatial resolution of 90 m, and (land-sat 8) Image are used with Arc GIS Environment for delineation of the secondary basins (Abu-Hadeer, Al-kasir, Ashali, Kor al-tair, Shuwija, Abu marys).</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>The interpretation of the gravity data shows two prominent sets of lineaments. The first set is taken NW-NE direction perpendicular to the extensional structures, while the second set has NS-EW direction. Areas with high lineament density have the highest permeability, which means they have a higher possibility of gathering groundwater.</p> Aqeel Rahman, Inass Almallah , Ahmed Mousa Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Characterization and Antifungal Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Mediated by Fungi <p>Nanotechnology is quickly becoming one of the most essential and transformative areas of science. Physical, chemical, mechanical, and biological approaches are all used to create nanoparticles. Plants or microorganisms are frequently used in biological methods of metal ion reduction because they are clean, nontoxic, safe, biocompatible, and ecologically friendly. Fourir transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT–IR), scaning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy were described to analyze the nanoparticles generated (XRD). Nanoparticles (NPs) made from fungi have a diverse range of bio catalytic techniques, including enzyme immobilization for increased enzymatic activity. Silver (Ag) NPs made from fungi were discovered to have a benign effect in a wound and a thermal wound, and to have anti-mosquito, antibacterial, and antifungal properties</p> Liqaa Y. Mohsen , Rafal Ahmed Lilo, Zeena Hadi Obaid Alwan Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000