Main Article Content
In order to achieve the research objectives, The researcher made a measure of emotional prediction - for Gilbert and Wilson The measurement consists of 46 items divided into four areas
Equivalence, Limited Emotions, Power of Emotions, and Equalization of Emotions In addition to making or building a measure of defensive pessimism for middle school students based on the defensive pessimism theory.
(Norm and cantor 1989) It consists of 56 point divided into two areas: self-protection and The motivational excitability.
After verifying the psychometric properties of the two research tools, they were applied to the research sample of (400) male and female students, who were selected by random stratification method according to (gender, specialization) for the academic year (2019-2020), and to analyze the research data, the researcher used a set of statistical methods, including the t-test for an independent sample One, the T-test for two independent samples, the T-test for the Pearson correlation coefficient function, the Fakronbach coefficient, the binary variance analysis.