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Early neonatal infection is obvious problem resulting in significant morbidity and mortality especially preterm neonates, therefore rapid diagnosis and early treatment paramount to avoid death. The current study was design to determine the frequency of bacterial isolates causing early onset neonatal sepsis and their susceptibility patterns in Duhok province, in which carried out on newborns were admitted to the preterm unit and intensive care unit (ICU) in Maternity & Obstetric Hospital in Duhok/ Iraq, from November 2015 to December 2016. Patients were classified in to two groups (proven and clinical sepsis) according to the clinical signs and blood culture.
Collected blood samples were cultured in Brain Heart Infusion broth and check daily for 3 days for presence of visible microbial growth. Then all purified isolates were confirmed by using BD- Phoenix™ identification and susceptibility testing system provides rapid, accurate and reliable detection of known and emerging antimicrobial resistance. All data obtained, were analyzed by SPSS version 23 windows and Microsoft Excel (2013). One-hundred twenty neonates were studied and the proven sepsis was found in 91(75.8%) cases, while 29 (24.1%) cases reported as negative blood culture. Gram negative bacteria were responsible for most cases of neonatal sepsis 62(68.1%) while Gram positive bacteria were 29(31.9%). The most frequent isolated pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae 30(33%), Coagulase negative Staphylococcus 24(26.4%), Escherechia coli 19 (20.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 9 (9.9%), followed by Enterobacter aerogenes and Streptococcus agalactiae 3(3.3%), Enterococcus faecalis 2(2.2%), and one isolate of Shigella dysenteriae (1.1%). In conclusion: EOS mainly associated with gram negative bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae found to be the predominant pathogens. The result of our study reveals that all isolates (both gram negative and gram positive bacteria) were multidrug resistant.